MICHELE NORRIS, host: From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED.
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The U.S. deported a record number of people over the last year, nearly 400,000. And with more deportations come more chances that the wrong people will get caught up in the system.
As NPR's Ted Robbins reports, that includes American citizens.
TED ROBBINS: The government is not shy about its success deporting people from the U.S. ICE, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, recently sent out videos of early-morning raids conducted across the country. Uniformed ICE agents are shown planning to capture suspects.
(SOUNDBITE OF ICE VIDEO)
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: I think we'll cover it. It's a real high wall with concertina wire around it, so
ROBBINS: Followed by shots of the suspects being handcuffed and put into vehicles.
(SOUNDBITE OF DOOR)
ROBBINS: A record 396,000 people were deported from the country during the federal fiscal year just ended. Some caught in raids, others detained by ICE after being arrested by local police.
But Northwestern University political science Professor Jacqueline Stevens says some of those held weren't illegal immigrants at all.
JACQUELINE STEVENS: I think it's pretty fair to say that there is a low but persistent rate of people who are being held by ICE in violation of the law who are U.S. citizens.
ROBBINS: Take the case of Mark Lyttle. He was deported to Mexico in 2008. Lyttle, who has a history of mental illness, gave ICE agents conflicting stories, telling them that he was a U.S. citizen and also that he was a Mexican to avoid an argument. ICE apparently ignored records that he was born in North Carolina and had no relatives in Mexico. Eventually, Lyttle returned to the U.S.
Earlier this year, the government admitted another deported man named Andres Robles was a citizen. They sent Robles a letter with this odd offer in it.
STEVENS: (Reading) We are prepared to issue you a Certificate of Citizenship. You just have to come by and pick it up. We realize this won't be possible for you because you were deported.
ROBBINS: The case of a Phoenix man, George Ibarra, isn't so clear-cut. He's been deported twice over the last 15 years while trying to prove his citizenship.
GEORGE IBARRA: I'm up against a big old juggernaut. You know, a bureaucratic juggernaut that just doesn't want to let go, you know. They just want to keep trying to stick it to me.
ROBBINS: I found George Ibarra in the Maricopa County Jail in Phoenix, where he was being held for shooting a gun into the air, he says in frustration.
IBARRA: I've been just sitting there in my house going crazy, man. My lawyer told me I can't go to work. I can't do nothing until this thing's over. So...
ROBBINS: So you just lost it.
IBARRA: Mm-hmm, yeah.
ROBBINS: Ibarra was a Marine. He has the Marine insignia - the eagle, anchor and globe - tattooed on his chest. He suffers from PTSD after being wounded in the First Gulf War. George Ibarra grew up in Phoenix. What he didn't know was that his mother was born just over the border in Nogales, Mexico. That's where George was born. His mother brought him to Arizona when he was a baby.
The fact that his mother has lived in the U.S. for decades, and that his grandfather was born in Arizona, should make Ibarra eligible for what's called derived citizenship.
LUIS PARRA: He never knew about this legal right to citizenship through his grandfather and his mother. He never knew about that.
ROBBINS: That's Luis Parra, George Ibarra's lawyer. Like many caught-up in ICE detention, George Ibarra was ignorant of the law. The first time he was picked up, he faced nine months in the detention center in Florence, Arizona. That's when he made a mistake. When ICE said he could get out early if he voluntarily deported himself, he said yes.
IBARRA: They put me on a bus and shipped me to Mexico. I mean, I showed up in Mexico, I was like where do I go? What do I do?
ROBBINS: He turned right around with his military ID and driver's license and came back through the Nogales port of entry. Then he got into trouble with the local police again, a drug use charge. But now he had a deportation on his record calling into question his claim to citizenship. But faced with another long stint in detention, he volunteered to be deported a second time.
PARRA: He made some mistakes, that's for sure.
ROBBINS: After getting Luis Parra as a lawyer, an immigration judge looked at the evidence and ruled that George Ibarra does have a right to citizenship. But ICE has appealed that ruling.
PARRA: Why hasn't it stopped? Despite the fact that he's a veteran and despite the fact that he's a fourth generation American. I'm upset. I served this country just like George did. We put our lives on the line.
ROBBINS: We asked ICE for an interview, but a spokesperson said the agency doesn't comment on specific cases because of privacy concerns. The government denies that it holds U.S. citizens in immigration detention.
But Northwestern University Professor Jacqueline Stevens says government policy allows people with a credible claim to citizenship to remain free, while their status is determined. Stevens says the way deportation proceedings are conducted causes problems. Unlike criminal courts, immigration courts have few checks.
STEVENS: I've never seen an ICE agent who filed an arrest report appear in an immigration proceeding, not once. And I've watched literally hundreds of these cases. And not once do they have to go to court to be interrogated by a judge about the accuracy of the information that's presented.
ROBBINS: Stevens looked at about 8,000 cases in just two immigration detention facilities. She found that about 1 percent of the time, people were eventually let go because they were U.S. citizens. Eventually, though, meant the citizens were held between one week and four years in detention. Now you might say, 1 percent that's not bad.
STEVENS: And that is the response that some members of Congress have made to this. However, if we think about the magnitude of our deportation process that means that thousands of U.S. citizens each year, and tens of thousands in the course of a decade, will be detained for substantial periods of time in absolute violation of the law and their civil rights.
ROBBINS: In other words, in the rush to deport record numbers of illegal immigrants, the government may also be deporting people who aren't illegal immigrants at all.
Ted Robbins, NPR News.
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