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GUY RAZ, HOST:

Now, how economic pain can reshape a country's politics. The downturn has hit the tiny Eastern European nation of Latvia hard. Family incomes fell as the government implemented harsh austerity measures. Latvia broke free from Soviet rule 20 years ago.

But when NPR's David Greene traveled there recently, he found people more open to what was once unthinkable - backing a political party that is pro-Russian.

DAVID GREENE, BYLINE: Twenty-three-year-old Liva Zvaigone never considered supporting Russian politicians. Her family felt the pain of Soviet occupation. And like many Latvians, she was never eager to give ethnic Russians too much political power. Then again, in the capital, Riga, a party with political ties to Moscow is running the city government and seems to have created a safety net for people as they emerge from Europe's deepest recession.

LIVA ZVAIGONE: They're good workers. You can see it in Riga, what's happening in Riga. And I believe it's better than in other cities.

GREENE: Zvaigone works as a waitress at a Riga coffee shop that's bustling with customers. She sees the local economy more vibrant now than a year or so ago, when her father lost his job and her mother, a teacher, lost much of her salary. Economic issues are for now outweighing resentment over the past.

ZVAIGONE: History is history. You have to know it, but you don't have to live with it all the time.

GREENE: We've heard so much about the political upheaval in Greece and Italy. These turbulent economic times have also brought political change elsewhere, less noticed but no less significant. In Latvia in September, Harmony Center, a party that mostly represents the country's roughly 30 percent Russian minority, built on its success in Riga and won the most votes in the national parliamentary election.

Their support still came mostly from ethnic Russians. Yet, some Latvians, too, liked the leftist party and its call for better pensions and more spending. Ultimately, though, the prime minister cobbled together a new majority coalition in parliament, without Harmony Center.

(SOUNDBITE OF PROTEST)

GREENE: Supporters took to the streets in anger, including Eugene Albert.

EUGENE ALBERT: So, the winners have been left behind the fence, if there is such a thing.

GREENE: Albert, who's an ethnic mix of Latvian and Russian, says leaving the party out of the governing coalition was an act of discrimination against Russians, many of whom moved or were relocated to Latvia during Soviet times.

ALBERT: Don't you ever mix Russians with the Soviets. They are different people. Most of the Russians who live here respect this country and love this country. It's their motherland and fatherland, for God's sake.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

GREENE: Aldis Kashkis, who's ethnic Latvian, walked me along one of Riga's charming cobblestone streets, beside a dark rectangular building that was once a soviet museum. After the Soviet fall, Latvians turned it into the Museum of Occupation. They did leave some things, like the statue honoring Latvians who fought with the Bolsheviks.

ALDIS KASHKIS: As you see, we didn't took away the Red Guards monument. It's still standing there because this is a part of our history.

GREENE: And how to deal sensitively with history is now confronting the nation's politicians. One reason Latvian leaders are wary of giving Harmony Center a larger voice is that the party has refused, still today, to acknowledge that Latvia was forcibly occupied during Soviet times. Kashkis, a former member of Latvia's parliament, says that's wrong.

KASHKIS: Soviet totalitarian communism is the fact. And the occupation is the fact.

GREENE: But he insists keeping the party with Russian ties out of the governing coalition in parliament was not about history or ethnicity but about the party's leftist ideas.

KASHKIS: You cannot raise the pensions. Take a look at what's going on in Greece. Who wants Greece here in Riga? No.

GREENE: Even if Harmony Center were to gain more political strength, no one expects Latvia to become some close ally with Russia. The country is firmly in the EU and NATO, and Western cultural influences are strong. But if nothing else, the political trends in Latvia seem to be a reminder of how painful these economic times have been. For some, painful enough to trump the pain of history.

David Greene, NPR News.

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