Copyright ©2011 NPR. For personal, noncommercial use only. See Terms of Use. For other uses, prior permission required.


From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Guy Raz.

In the history of recorded music, November 23rd, 1936 was a very good day. Two men, an ocean apart, each sat before a microphone and began to play. One was a cello prodigy who had performed for the queen of Spain; the other played guitar and was a regular in the juke joints of the Mississippi Delta.

Seventy-five years ago today, Pablo Casals and Robert Johnson both made recordings that changed music history. And it was pure coincidence.

Producers Joe Richman and Samara Freemark of Radio Diaries, take us back to that day.


ROBERT JOHNSON: (Singing) I went to the crossroads, knelt down on my knees...

HONEYBOY EDWARDS: At first, me and Robert in 1936, same year he recorded. He wasn't famous at the time. Just a quiet man who played guitar. My name is Honeyboy Edwards. I'm a guitar player and I play the blues. Back in them days, on a Saturday night, everybody would go over to that roadhouse, right down 61 Highway. Have music and have barbecue, white whiskey, and we all started playing blues together.

That old boy sure could play a guitar.


JOHNSON: (Singing) I don't have no sweet woman (unintelligible)...


BERNARD GREENHOUSE: My name is Bernard Greenhouse. I'm a cellist. I was one of the early students of Casals' and I spent a lot of time working on the Bach suites with him. Pablo Casals was one of the greatest musicians of all time.


PAUL ELI: My name is Paul Eli and I'm the author of "Sound About: Reinventing Bach."

SCOTT AINSLIE: My name is Scott Ainslie. I'm a blues guitarist and I wrote a book on Robert Johnson's work called "Robert Johnson at the Crossroads."

BILLY GIBBONS: My name is Billy Gibbons. I'm the guitar player for ZZ Top.

ELI: November 23rd, 1936, Robert Johnson goes into a hotel room which has been fashioned into recording studio in.

GIBBONS: They recorded in the Gunther Hotel, San Antonio, Texas.

AINSLIE: The record companies brought people from all over the West and Southeast to come and record - gospel musicians, string bands, polka bands. I mean, they were just recording everybody. And so, Robert Johnson's recording session was sandwiched in between a bunch of hillbillies and a bunch of sisters who played Mexican guitar music.

GIBBONS: As the story goes, Robert Johnson was so shy, they allowed him to turn his back to the engineers, so that he wouldn't be intimidated by the whole procedure.

AINSLIE: He settled down, facing into a corner; tuned up his guitar and at some point they give him a signal to begin. And Robert Johnson starts to play.


JOHNSON: (Singing) I got kind hearted woman...

GIBBONS: The way his hands struck the strings, this was just one guy, one guitar and meat on metal on wood.


JOHNSON: (Singing) I got a kind hearted woman, do anything in this world for me...

ELI: On that same day, Pablo Casals walked into a studio in London. Abbey Road Studios was billed as the most advanced recording studio in the world. The technicians wore white lab coats. All the equipment with stainless and polished. So there he was sitting in a chair. He was 60 years old and ready to make the recordings that in some respects he'd been waiting all his life to make.

He put his bow to the strings and began to play.


GREENHOUSE: It was very difficult to get a recording in those days. They were on wax, the old recordings. There was no tape which could be cut. You couldn't patch a bad place. You couldn't play a run and have one note in the run missing and put it in later. You were alone with your cello.


AINSLIE: There was an electronic light that they would turn on when you have to tie up the tune, before they ran out of wax. Three minutes, that's how much time you gone on a 10-inch wax disc. Earlier recordings made by other bluesmen, record a slice of a juke joint performance that might go on for 12 or 15 minutes. Verse, verse, verse, verse, verse, verse and then cut off part-way through because they'd run out of wax.

Johnson had listened to enough and 78s, so he knew how long a record was. And so, he crafted his songs with tighter lyrics and a better sense of telling the story.

ELI: Three minutes songs and Robert Johnson and can sketch these incredible dramas of sin and redemption, struggle and loss. And you feel a world being drawn before your eyes.


JOHNSON: (Singing) You better come on in my kitchen 'cause there's going to be raining outdoor...

EDWARDS: Blues is like a story. You say I woke up this morning and my baby was gone. Say, I wonder which way did my baby go? You know what I mean? It's a simple thing but you got to understand music. If you don't understand you'll never be nothing good.

ELI: Pablo Casals discovered the cello suites as a boy in a dusty music store in Barcelona.


ELI: For long time the suites were not an important work, a concert work. They were considered exercises, a way for cellists to learn how to play the cello better. There was something methodical about them. Casals was astonished by this. He played the cello suites and said, these were supposed to be so cold, how could anyone consider this music cold? Nobody thinks that anymore.


EDWARDS: Back in them days, the musicians, they just picked up a guitar and played just like a mule trotting down the road.


EDWARDS: But they didn't have nothing to sweeten the song up, nothing at all. But Robert, he had a different style with the guitar.


AINSLIE: That thumping boogie-woogie bass - (Singing) dun-da-dun-da-dun-da-dun. And the chiming chords in the high part over a sustained boogie-woogie bass line, Robert Johnson figured out how to do that with one guitar rather than two. Whereas, everybody else might have rhythm guitarist banging along, and then play the fancy stuff on top and sing, Robert could do it all.


JOHNSON: (Singing) I love my baby. My baby don't love me. I love my baby...

GIBBONS: He had mastered a way of playing that went far beyond what anybody else was in was doing from the Delta at that time. It's downright befuddling. And this leads to the famous tale of Robert Johnson meeting the devil at the crossroads. 'Cause, man, he must've gone somewhere and did something.

ELI: November 23rd, 1936 was a good day for recorded music. Pablo Casals had recorded two Bach cello suites. Robert Johnson had recorded two takes of eight different songs. An hour London, an hour in Texas, and those two hours are as perfect a two hours of music as anyone has ever recorded.

EDWARDS: After he recorded, his record was on every jukebox in the city. You could hear "Terraplane Blues," "Hellhounds On My Trail," and "Come On In My Kitchen." His stuff was out everywhere and he had a lot of hit numbers at that time.


JOHNSON: (Singing) I believe. I believe my time ain't long...

AINSLIE: A couple of years later, in 1938, he got killed. He had been messing around with a juke joint owner's wife, in a joint outside of Greenwood, Mississippi, and somebody passes him some kind of poison in a bottle of whiskey. And that's the end of Robert Johnson. He was 27.


ELI: Pablo Casals, who was already famous, became more famous than ever. He played at the White House, became the darling of the Kennedy administration. He lived into his 90s. And if there was one work by which he was known, it was his recording of the Bach cello suites; in some ways, the iconic classical recording of the 20th century.


ELI: Meanwhile, Robert Johnson's recordings were pretty much forgotten.

AINSLIE: Almost nobody knew who Robert Johnson was until 1961, when the first reissue came out on Columbia records.

GIBBONS: Everybody stopped in their tracks - just like, whoa.


JOHNSON: (Singing) I went to the crossroads...

GIBBONS: Robert Johnson's songs were covered by Eric Clapton...


ERIC CLAPTON: (Singing) I went down to the crossroads, tried to flag a ride...

AINSLIE: Robert Plant and Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin.

GIBBONS: And, of course, the Rolling Stones. The list goes on and on. Robert Johnson's small handful of recordings inspired everybody at that time. Well, it's what inspired ZZ Top's "La Grange."


GIBBONS: You know what I'm talking about. But, as many times as a Robert Johnson number has been covered and re-recorded and re-interpreted, no one has yet recaptured what guitar players would refer to as that internal DNA. You can get the same guitar, you can probably go back to the same hotel room, but delivering it like Robert Johnson did in 1936, forget about. It's not gonna happen. That's what Robert Johnson left us with. Yeah.

GREENHOUSE: I have been playing the Bach suites for pretty close to 80 years. I've played them this morning. But as old as I am, and as much success as I've had, when I turn that record on and I listen to the old recording of Casal's I can still realize my own failings because he was the one who made it into a language. And that's what music is, it's a language which transcends all people and all parts of the world. And it doesn't make any difference whether it's Robert Johnson or Pablo Casal's, whether you do it with the Bach suites or you do it with the guitar. That's what we all try to do, make a language of music, a language which is almost understandable word-for-word.

RAZ: Cellist Bernard Greenhouse and blues guitarist Honeyboy Edwards both died this year, not long after they were interviewed for this story.

Copyright © 2011 NPR. All rights reserved. No quotes from the materials contained herein may be used in any media without attribution to NPR. This transcript is provided for personal, noncommercial use only, pursuant to our Terms of Use. Any other use requires NPR's prior permission. Visit our permissions page for further information.

NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by a contractor for NPR, and accuracy and availability may vary. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Please be aware that the authoritative record of NPR's programming is the audio.



Please keep your community civil. All comments must follow the Community rules and Terms of Use. NPR reserves the right to use the comments we receive, in whole or in part, and to use the commenter's name and location, in any medium. See also the Terms of Use, Privacy Policy and Community FAQ.