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RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:

Now to a new twist in an old case. Thirty years ago, President Ronald Reagan and three others were shot outside a hotel in Washington, D.C. The gunman was John Hinckley. At Hinckley's trial, a jury found him not guilty by reason of insanity, and authorities sent him to a mental institution.

Over the years, a judge has gradually allowed Hinckley to visit his family and get a driver's license. Today, lawyers for Hinckley and the Justice Department will appear in court again. This time, they'll fight over whether he deserves more privileges, which could pave the way for him to live in the community. NPR's Carrie Johnson reports.

CARRIE JOHNSON, BYLINE: On March 30th, 1981, the news came on NPR in a burst of urgency.

(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)

UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Again, the president of the United States, wounded this afternoon in an assassination attempt. He's reported to be conscious, his condition stable. A white male was reported to be arrested after the shots were fired. He is now in custody.

JOHNSON: And John Hinckley has remained in custody ever since - until now. A proposal under consideration by U.S. District Judge Paul Friedman would let Hinckley leave the hospital for 24 days at a stretch and eventually, allow him to live full time with his mother in Williamsburg, Virginia, under some monitoring. Back in 1982, lawyers for Hinckley convinced a jury he was not guilty because he was acting in the throes of mental illness, a dangerous obsession with the actress Jodie Foster. But the law is designed to evolve along with the medical condition of the defendant. Thomas Zeno is a former prosecutor who worked on the Hinckley case.

THOMAS ZENO: The progression that is envisioned by the statute is that someone who's mentally ill and found not guilty by reason of insanity would be put into a mental institution, and then can gradually be reincorporated into the community.

JOHNSON: When he worked in the government, though, Zeno spent years fighting Hinckley's attempts at freedom. He's raised questions about Hinckley's relationships with women he met at the hospital, and whether Hinckley is telling his doctors the truth about what's going on in his head.

ZENO: That's the crucial thing - is, what's he thinking about these women, what might his motivations be, and is he being honest?

JOHNSON: During the court hearing, which could last through next week, psychiatrists working for Hinckley and the Justice Department will offer conflicting testimony about whether he still represents a threat to the community. Hinckley's lawyer didn't return calls. But he's said prosecutors have, quote, no evidence of Hinckley being dangerous. And a review board at the mental institution agrees. For the last couple of years, Hinckley's been able to leave the hospital for as long as 10 days, so long as his mother is watching.

Just in case, the judge has required Hinckley to carry a GPS phone, keep taking his medicine, and to call the hospital once a day. Doctors say nothing bad has happened. Hinckley's gone out to eat, shopping at big-box stores and for pet supplies. And that bothers Joe Di Genova. He was the U.S. attorney in Washington when Hinckley began to intensify his efforts to leave the mental institution.

JOE DI GENOVA: I believe that anyone who tries to nullify a presidential election with a bullet forfeits their right to walk around free in society.

JOHNSON: The record in other cases is mixed. Arthur Bremer, who shot candidate George Wallace on the campaign trail in 1972, got out of prison after serving 35 years. But Sirhan Sirhan, the man convicted of killing presidential candidate Robert Kennedy, has been denied parole. If Hinckley does win the right to move freely, Di Genova says, the Secret Service undoubtedly will have to devote time and money to monitoring him when, he says, agents should be concentrating on the current president. Carrie Johnson, NPR News, Washington.

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