American states are not doing enough to help prevent child sex trafficking. That's the bottom line of a new report out today, which gives a failing grade to more than half the states in the country. The study grades every state on whether it has laws on the books to protect children who are pushed into the sex trade, and to punish the adults who seek out those services. NPR's Carrie Johnson reports.

CARRIE JOHNSON, BYLINE: Too many states still inadvertently provide a safe haven inside the U.S. when it comes to sex trafficking, even when children on the streets bear the consequences. That's the conclusion of a new study by the advocacy group Shared Hope International, along with the American Center for Law and Justice. Linda Smith is a former Republican member of Congress from Washington state. She founded Shared Hope International after she left Capitol Hill.

LINDA SMITH: I was absolutely shocked when we started sending people into states as sex tourists. And they would go in, and they would come into the city - maybe from another country, maybe another state - and they could buy kids so easily.

JOHNSON: Smith says she's devoting all her energy to making life harder for criminals and to helping victims, especially children, who are trafficked for sex and domestic work. Laws in Washington state and Texas are strong, she says, but many other states are falling down on the job, miserably.

Lately, she's got an important ally: the National Association of Attorneys General. It's a group made up of the top prosecutors in each state. And this year, they've put the fight against human trafficking at the top of their agenda. Rob McKenna is the attorney general in Washington state. He says there's a lot of work to be done.

ROB MCKENNA: In our understanding of human trafficking, we are today about where we were with the problem of domestic violence about 40 years ago - low levels of awareness, low levels of law-enforcement response, almost no services for victims.

JOHNSON: McKenna says the area is so misunderstood that experts still aren't sure how many victims suffer every year. He says estimates start around a hundred-thousand people in the U.S. And around the world, he says, the United Nations and U.S. data show human trafficking ranks only behind narcotics as one of the most lucrative and fast-growing criminal enterprises.

Carrie Johnson, NPR News, Washington.

INSKEEP: And you'll find a link to the new report at NPR.org.

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