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In the midst of a debt crisis that has threatened the global economy, Europeans are asking each other how they can prevent it from happening again. Here's the basic problem. Many countries' economic fates are linked in Europe because they use the same currency - the euro. But they do not have much influence if one of their neighbors behaves irresponsibly. Greece, among other nations, ran up big debts. And now Greece's inability to pay has threatened the whole continent and more.
When Europeans meet next week in Brussels, they will consider whether they're willing to give up their power in exchange for security. NPR's John Ydstie explains.
JOHN YDSTIE, BYLINE: There are already rules that govern the fiscal policies of the countries that use the euro currency. For instance, a rule requiring budget deficits of no more than three percent of a country's GDP. But the rules have been broken with impunity.
To build credibility with the ECB, the stronger euro economies, like Germany and the Netherlands, have been pushing new enforcement rules. And over the past few weeks, France has reluctantly agreed to come along.
Jacob Kirkegaard of the Peterson Institute for International Economics says the rules would ask for an unprecedented handover of fiscal sovereignty from the euro countries.
JACOB KIRKEGAARD: The members of the euro area, going forward, are going to submit themselves to constraints on their fiscal policies that are really, usually, in my opinion, historically only associated with reparations after wars.
YDSTIE: Among the enforcement mechanisms being proposed is sending violators to the European Court of Justice for sanction. Another proposal, countries would have to submit their national budgets to the European Commission for scrutiny, and possibly line item vetoes, before submitting them to their own national parliaments. A third, subjecting violators to strict austerity programs.
KEN ROGOFF: I don't put much credence in any of the fiscal rules that they're talking about. I don't think they're credible.
YDSTIE: That's Ken Rogoff, a Harvard professor and former chief economist for the IMF.
ROGOFF: The idea that the commission will have line item veto, approve each expenditure, each country's budget, this doesn't have the ring of common sense.
YDSTIE: Rogoff believes the leaders are really looking for a political fig leaf that will allow the European Central Bank to get more involved in fighting the debt crisis.
ROGOFF: An agreement like that might be enough for the ECB to pretend that it's real and go in and provide a temporary solution to the problem.
YDSTIE: For instance, buying up more of the bonds of struggling nations like Greece, Spain and Italy to keep their governments solvent. But what really needs to happen says Rogoff is a deeper political and fiscal union among euro area members. That could take a long time.
Jacob Kirkegaard thinks the leaders will lay the foundation for that deeper union at their December 9th meeting. But because changing the EU's founding treaty is a lengthy process, he and others have suggested that the euro area countries might embark on a side agreement that binds them to new enforcement rules more quickly. He says it will be hard for any country to say no to such a deal, because of this implicit threat.
KIRKEGAARD: If you don't sign up, now, to these tougher fiscal rules, well don't expect the European Central Bank to provide you any help.
YDSTIE: Kirkegaard thinks that will be enough of a threat to get all 17 members of the euro area to agree to the rules. He thinks all of them will eventually weather this crisis and the euro area will be preserved. Ken Rogoff is far more skeptical.
ROGOFF: I feel confident that there will be a euro at the end of this, but I feel equally confident that you won't have all the existing countries in it.
YDSTIE: Rogoff thinks a few of the countries, like Greece and Portugal, will end up on sabbatical from the euro, possibly for decades, until their economies are mature enough to return. Rogoff says, the big question mark is Italy. If it falls out of the euro, he says, it puts the whole grand experiment in jeopardy.
John Ydstie, NPR News, Washington.
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