ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
The official results of that parliamentary election give the ruling United Russia party a slim majority, but the Internet is rife with reports of vote-tampering, some with photo and video evidence.
While the Kremlin is allowing some rallies, police have rounded up hundreds of demonstrators. Among them, an anticorruption campaigner named Alexei Navalny. He's now serving 15 days for disobeying police instructions.
Reporter Peter Van Dyk in Moscow explains why Navalny is the protesters' darling and the Kremlin's bete noire.
(SOUNDBITE OF PROTEST)
PETER VAN DYK, BYLINE: Alexei Navalny can work a crowd and, after elections that observers say were littered with violations, this Moscow crowd is already on site.
ALEXEI NAVALNY: (Foreign Language Spoken)
DYK: What's the party called he shouts, referring to United Russia. The party of crooks and thieves, they chant back.
NAVALNY: (Foreign Language Spoken)
DYK: Navalny coined the phrase and it caught on like wildfire. Anton Nossik, an Internet entrepreneur and blogger who works with Navalny, explains.
ANTON NOSSIK: The problem here is quite straightforward. There are crooks and thieves in the government who want to abuse the electoral system the way they abuse the economic system of the country.
DYK: It's his fight against economic corruption that has made Navalny famous. The 35-year-old lawyer had long been politically active, but it was only once he started to take on the state oil pipeline monopoly in 2007 and blogged about it that his profile began to rise.
NOSSIK: Navalny owes all of his popularity to the Internet because he was never allowed to appear on any television channel, at least for the last four years when he's fighting corruption.
DYK: Bribery is a fact of daily life here and citizens now see bureaucrats enjoying lavish lifestyles far beyond their official salaries. Navalny's website claims to have saved the state millions of dollars by exposing dubious government tenders and he has more than 100,000 followers on Twitter. Since his detention, he's getting even more.
After Navalny's arrest, his supporters followed Twitter rumors from jail to jail as they tried to find out where he was. Activists outside the jail in the middle of the night sent a live video feed from a mobile phone. Maria Legozhina saw it on the Web and rushed to join them.
MARIA LEGOZHINA: (Foreign Language Spoken)
DYK: Maria says she's studying government management and Navalny's fight against corruption speaks to her. Navalny also strikes a chord with Anton Nikolayev, a left wing artist and activist. He's one in the network using Twitter to mobilize support for Navalny in jail.
ANTON NIKOLAYEV: Common liberal people are looking to his blog and they believe him and he is a very significant figure right now.
DYK: Nikolayev believes Navalny could even beat Vladimir Putin in March's presidential election if the Kremlin ever allowed him on the ballot, yet the young artist doesn't share all the lawyer's views. Navalny has marched with anti-migrant nationalists whose slogan is Russia for Russians.
DMITRY GOLUBOVSKY: The fact is that a lot of people in the sort of Russian society didn't seem to notice that side of Mr. Navalny, although he never kept it as a secret.
DYK: Dmitry Golubovsky is the editor of Russian Esquire. This month, he made Navalny the first Russian on the cover since the magazine's 2005 launch.
GOLUBOVSKY: We were totally aware that he has these views, but what he does - the fight against corruption and United Russia - that's what the vast majority of people who support him find the most important.
DYK: With a simple message that resonates, Navalny could go far. For now, it has taken him to jail. If the Kremlin authorities are afraid of him, putting him there may prove to be the worst thing they could have done.
For NPR News, I'm Peter Van Dyk in Moscow.