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MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Melissa Block.

We're going to spend the next few minutes of the program on the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. While past U.S. military efforts have focused on Taliban activity in the south of Afghanistan, a new battle line has been drawn there, along the border. That's because when insurgents stage a high-profile attack in Kabul, it's likely some - if not all - of the men, money and material involved came from Pakistan.

NPR's Quil Lawrence takes us now to a U.S. base on the border, where troops have been keeping watch over who and what tries to cross.

QUIL LAWRENCE, BYLINE: The mountains along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border would be cruel enough even without a war going on. Cliffs drop from 8,000-foot peaks that are spotted with only a few trees among the rocks. But Afghanistan's eastern border has become the focus of the conflict.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: All right. First up, what's the sequence of events?

LAWRENCE: In Paktika Province, Forward Operating Base Tillman looks across toward Pakistan over craggy peaks that American troops have nicknamed Big Ugly and Big Nasty. The base is named after Pat Tillman, who left an NFL career to join the Army. He was killed by friendly fire in 2004, further north along the Af-Pak border.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: Attention to orders.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: The Combat Infantry Badge is awarded to the following soldiers for direct participation...

LAWRENCE: At a recent ceremony here, some of the soldiers pinned on the Combat Infantry Badge, a decoration that goes only to those who have seen the fighting up close. Lieutenant Christian Garrels grinned and then winced as his comrades shook his hand and punched the new badge on his chest – a tradition that leaves bruises.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN #3: Congratulations.

LT. CHRISTIAN GARRELS: I love it. It feels so great. Thank you.

LAWRENCE: It's a fair bet that all the soldiers here will be wearing the badge soon enough. FOB Tillman is perched along one of the main routes insurgents use to cross back and forth from Pakistan, says Lieutenant Garrels.

GARRELS: Our company's mission is to interdict insurgent activity, and also interdict insurgent movement.

LAWRENCE: Taliban fighters, and their allies in the Haqqani network, wind through the mountains on foot or mule or motorcycle, sometimes taking two days to reach towns inside Afghanistan, where they have safe houses. The base here is causing them some frustration - if the number of rockets and mortars that come crashing in is any indication. The military calls that indirect fire.

Captain Brad Vance, the commanding officer on FOB Tillman, says it's not always clear where the rockets are coming from.

CAPT. BRAD VANCE: The border has always been a point of contention because it's disputed. What the Afghans think about the border may not necessarily be what the Pakistanis think about the border. So when indirect fire hits Tillman, it's very hard to tell, actually, which country it came from, who launched it, etc., etc.

LAWRENCE: How the soldiers respond depends on where they think the rockets came from, says Vance. About once a month, they consult with two Pakistani army officers stationed here at the U.S. base, in an effort to prevent incidents such as the one last month when U.S. helicopters apparently killed 24 Pakistani soldiers.

The insurgents that make it past the border then have a relatively fast road toward Kabul. And control of that route has become a major military objective. It passes north to Logar Province, on the doorstep of the capital.

The governor of Logar, Atiq Lodin, met recently with American officials at a Logar district center, where a small U.S. base sits adjacent to several municipal buildings.

ATIQ LODIN: (Foreign language spoken)

LAWRENCE: Fighters come here from Pakistan, Lodin said, though he added that Afghan and American forces drove them out during the summer's fighting season.

But days after the meeting, a truck packed with 14 tons of explosives rolled into the district center and detonated, demolishing several of the buildings and wounding scores, including one American.

NATO officials say they have captured members of the Haqqani group responsible for the attack. But it's clear that the route from Pakistan to Kabul is far from shut down, according to Mawlawi Pir Rohani, a member of the High Peace Council from the border province of Khost.

MAWLAWI PIR ROHANI: (Foreign language spoken)

LAWRENCE: All over Afghanistan, if a Taliban fighter knocks on a door and asks for shelter, he will be taken in - either out of fear or sympathy or anger at American forces occupying Afghanistan, says Rohani.

One week ago, a suicide bomber killed more than 80 people at a religious ceremony in Kabul. Investigations so far suggest he traveled the same route from Pakistan.

Quil Lawrence, NPR News.

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