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Nearly nine years after the Iraq War began, the U.S. is ending its military involvement there. In a moment, we'll hear about the mission that remains and the work that will fall to the thousands who will be working at the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad. But first, a look at one weapon with a lasting legacy: the improvised explosive device. IEDs, essentially homemade bombs became the weapon of choice for the insurgency in Iraq.
And as NPR's Rachel Martin reports, they changed the way the U.S. military thinks about warfare.
RACHEL MARTIN, BYLINE: Army Sergeant Major Todd Burnett spent some three years in Iraq hunting for IEDs.
SERGEANT MAJOR TODD BURNETT: I can remember going out and in one week I got blown up three times. And I say to people, I think we forget it wasn't whether you were going to get blown up back then, it was when you were going to get blown up.
MARTIN: He's a combat engineer. Now, these are not the guys who actually disarm the bombs. These are the guys who clear the roads. They spot the IEDs in the first place.
BURNETT: We'd love to find the IED before it blows us up. But if, not our job was for it to blow us up rather than blow somebody else up that is in less-protected vehicles.
MARTIN: In the early years of the war, U.S. troops were driving around in a lot of those less-protected vehicles - Humvees with little to no armor.
DR. ANTHONY CORDESMAN: Nobody was really prepared for this. No one had thought there would be an insurgency.
MARTIN: Tony Cordesman is with the Center for Strategic and International Studies. He's looked extensively at IEDs, and how the threat took hold in Iraq and evolved.
CORDESMAN: And initially they were very crude. All you had to do was put a detonator on, and you could turn a bomb or an artillery shell into what later came to be called an improvised explosive device.
MARTIN: Year after year, the IED attacks in Iraq became more frequent and more deadly.
CORDESMAN: As we developed better ways to patrol, they developed better ways to detonate.
MARTIN: In 2007 alone, there were 33,900 IED attacks against U.S. troops. IEDs became the signature weapon for insurgents who didn't have to stand and face a stronger, better equipped U.S. military. Instead, they could plant these cheap devices on roads and foot paths. For American troops, one wrong step could be fatal.
Again, Sergeant Major Todd Burnett.
BURNETT: It wore on us very heavily because if somebody got hurt in our battle space by an IED, we took it very personal 'cause we always wondered after we go through are they putting it in. Or did we miss it?
MARTIN: In 2006, the Pentagon set up an office to deal with the worsening threat, the Joint IED Defeat Organization. The goal: Get troops in the war zones the protection and equipment they need to deal with IEDs.
Lieutenant General Michael Barbero is the current director.
LIEUTENANT GENERAL MICHAEL BARBERO: We weren't created to go through some three or four-year acquisition process. We are here to rapidly produce capabilities and we have been doing that.
MARTIN: Barbero says the impulse was to get the troops what they needed fast, no matter the cost. And the money started to add up. This year's budget alone is $2.8 billion: armored vehicles, high-tech surveillance gear, remote controlled robots - all to fight a homemade bomb that costs about $30 to make.
Again, General Barbero:
BARBERO: A $31 bag of fertilizer and we're spending hundreds of millions of dollars on sensors and protective devices. We've got to drive down the cost of dealing with this enduring threat.
BURNETT: With all the money we've spent on technology...
MARTIN: That's Sergeant Major Todd Burnett again, the combat engineer.
BURNETT: ...still, the number one tool on the battlefield is a well-trained soldier and it's his eyeballs. And that's what's finding IEDs.
MARTIN: And they'll be looking for those IEDs for a while to come. General Barbero says just because the war is over in Iraq doesn't mean the threat goes away.
BARBERO: The greatest producer of causalities on the battlefield in the 20th century was artillery. And my assessment is the IED is the artillery of the 21st century. Wherever our forces go, they're going to be dealing with this.
MARTIN: And they are dealing with it. Not in Iraq, but in Afghanistan where U.S. troops are still driving un-cleared roads, walking foot patrols, and looking out for IEDs.
Rachel Martin, NPR News, Washington.