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The president of Israel, Shimon Peres, says his country faces a fight for, quote, "the soul of the nation and the essence of the state." Peres is not talking about Israel's uneasy relations with its neighbors. He is talking, instead, of a threat from within. Different interpretations of Judaism could be tearing Israel apart. NPR's Lourdes Garcia-Navarro has more.

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LOURDES GARCIA-NAVARRO, BYLINE: I am standing in Bet Shemesh, and this city, in between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, has become a symbol of a growing battle here in Israel. Hundreds of Israelis are out here today to protest against what they say is the imposition of strict codes of religious behavior in communities across this country.

DOV LIPTMAN: It's enough, it's enough, it's reached a point where we have to stop it and we are going to stop it.

GARCIA-NAVARRO: Dov Liptman lives in Bet Shemesh. There are many different strands of Judaism. Liptman belongs to the Modern Orthadox sect. While religiously observant, they are more liberal than the ultra-orthadox or Haredim, who practice the gender segregation and whose men eschew work in favor of religious study.

The Haredim are one of the fastest growing populations in Israel. In Bet Shemesh they make up half of the residents. Liptman says, as their numbers have grown, they've been trying to force their values on the community.

LIPTMAN: It's not an ultra-orthadox city. It's a city for Jews, including ultra-orthodox, and we welcome them but it's for all the populations.

GARCIA-NAVARRO: This recent fight came to a head over a bespectacled eight year old girl who was filmed by a local TV station being harassed by Haredi Jews for not dressing modestly enough. Most of the girls who study at an all-girls school on the edge of this ultra-orthadox neighborhood, say it's a regular occurrence.

YAEL: (Foreign language spoken)

GARCIA-NAVARRO: My sister and I walked down this street to school, says 15 year old Yael. I was wearing a long sleeved shirt and a three quarters length skirt and they spat at us, they didn't like the way we were dressed. It happens all the time she says.

The Haredi also enforce gender segregation on public transport - women are required to sit at the back of the bus. In Beit Shemesh the ultra-Orthodox population has even sent out modesty patrols to enforce chaste female dress. Yossi Shain heads the department of diplomacy at Tel Aviv University. He says religious battles like this one will get worse as the Haredi population gets bigger and their political clout grows.

SENATOR YOSSI SHAINN: This is going to be exacerbated in the next few years, because the demography is changing and the ultra-orthadox has become very much I would say intransigent in some respects. It's become - seems to be very powerful, it plays a very important role in the government and its leadership has become much more, I would say, extreme in its views.

GARCIA-NAVARRO: The ultra-orthadox have two political parties that play a pivotal role in Israel's coalition politics. Critics say successive governments have caved into their demands and turned a blind eye to their excesses in the name of political expediency. Israel has always sought to balance its democratic and Jewish identity and secular Jews warn these recent actions threaten that.

RABBI SHMUEL JAKOBOWITZ: It is a battle for the soul of Israel.

GARCIA-NAVARRO: Rabbi Shmuel Jakobowitz is an ultra-orthadox leader. He says people misunderstand the Haredim. They don't favor a kind of Jewish version of the Iranian theocracy that was ushered in with the Iranian revolution.

JAKOBOWITZ: People, I think, are understandably afraid of Khomeinism. We as Haredi Jews are definitely not Khomeinist in our attitudes to the contemporary world.

GARCIA-NAVARRO: He says Haredi Jews, though, should be allowed to live the way they wish.

JAKOBOWITZ: We find a lot of things abhorrent in the liberal way of living, which is very permissive, which is very promiscuous if I may use the word, which is very immodest to our mind. The dignity of women is protected much more with our method, with our system, than it is protected with the other system.

GARCIA-NAVARRO: The rabbi says there is a clash of civilizations going on in Israel right now and time, he says, is on the Haredi's side.

Lourdes Garcia-Navarro, NPR News, Jerusalem.

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