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LINDA WERTHEIMER, HOST:

When America built up its modern economy in the late 1800s, one effect swiftly became apparent: Clothing makers had to manufacture larger suits as Americans gained weight.

STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:

Today, something similar is happening in China. For 30 years, people have been eating more as their incomes grow. Fast food chains, supermarkets and street food vendors are flourishing, and obesity is on the rise. NPR's Eliza Barclay reports on what the Chinese are doing about it.

ELIZA BARCLAY, BYLINE: Two young men hunch over a bucket of fried chicken. They're inside a sparkling new KFC in Shanghai. I ask them, through an interpreter, if they're here often.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Yes, we come here often. We got to start very early. We just get used to the taste.

BARCLAY: Fast food has become a habit for a lot of Chinese. KFC first opened its doors in Beijing back in 1987. It now operates more than 3,000 stores in China. McDonald's has about half that many, and there are dozens of Chinese chains, too. It's no surprise that people are getting fat. But fast food is only part of the problem. Paul French is a market analyst in Shanghai. He's written a book called "Fat China." He says people are just eating more.

PAUL FRENCH: More, more, more of everything: larger portions, with more ingredients - more salt, more sugar, more oil, more fats. You know, breakfast and lunch and dinner and supper and grazing with snacks during the day, and drinking fizzy drinks rather than tea.

CAI MEQIN: A lot of the people, they have the obesity, overweight. So, it's, I think, a serious problem.

BARCLAY: That's Cai Meqin, a nutritionist at Shanghai Jiaotong University. She says all this overeating is partly a reaction to the food shortages under Chairman Mao a generation ago.

MEQIN: At that time, Chinese people not have much food to eat, so they very slim. But right now, we have much, much more food. So they eat more, so overweight.

BARCLAY: But many people, especially in the middle-class, are discovering that you don't have to eat and eat just because there's plenty of food available. Take, for instance, the Lu family. I visited their apartment in Shanghai one evening while they were cooking dinner. Mr. and Mrs. Lu share three modest rooms in a concrete high-rise with their 25-year-old daughter, Junting, and a spoiled cat. Mr. Lu moved to Shanghai from a remote town in the north before Junting was born. He says that the food rations of his youth shaped the way he ate decades later.

MR. LU: (Through translator) Before, our living standard was not good, so when there was a chance to eat meat, we usually ate a lot.

BARCLAY: When his income rose in the 1990s, he could, for the first time, eat as much meat as he wanted. And for a while, he did. But now he has realized it's not so healthful.

LU: (Through translator) Nowadays, because we are living a better life, usually we don't eat much meat. I pay special attention to this issue, so you can see I am very slim.

BARCLAY: Today, the Lus had what they call a heavy lunch with meat. So, for dinner, Mrs. Lu is preparing congee, the traditional boiled rice soup. She says that by keeping some of the old ways of eating, their diet stays balanced and they don't eat too much. Junting Lu, the daughter, is a translator for a Dutch newspaper. She's slender, with long, dark hair. She grew up eating mostly fast food. But now, like many people of her generation, she's eager to learn more about the food of the past.

JUNTING LU: More and more people, I think they now realize that maybe going back to the traditional way of eating is better.

BARCLAY: But Paul French points out that just going back to this traditional way of eating isn't the answer. He says what people really need is to learn how to make good choices.

FRENCH: The most popular Chinese breakfast is yotiao, which is a double deep-fried dough stick. I mean, that is extremely unhealthy.

BARCLAY: There is plenty of nutritious food available, and Anna Hu is working to help people discover it. She has created a website with lots of information about healthful eating. Today, she has brought me to the Ao Hua Farmers Market. There is an astounding variety of vegetables here, far more than previous generations of Chinese ever had. Until recently, Anna worked crazy, long hours selling software.

ANNA HU: Five to six years, I eat every outside. I never eat homemade food. Because, you know, outside food is oily and salty, and you cannot choose so many vegetables.

BARCLAY: She says as she was eating all this junk, she felt like the city was swallowing her. So she read modern books about nutrition and forced herself to try strange new vegetables. Now, she cooks them at home. She also features recipes on her website with ingredients like the broccoli here at the market.

HU: Look at broccoli. It's so small. I think it's more nutritious. It's better than the larger one.

(SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER)

BARCLAY: In many ways, figuring out how to stay slim and healthy in modern China is a bit like the struggle Chinese face in other parts of life. It's how to decide what to keep from the past, and what to take from all the new choices a growing economy offers. Eliza Barclay, NPR News.

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