Music Articles


Now, a report on a tiny new record label in India. It's dedicated to finding and preserving indigenous folk music before it disappears. Michael Sullivan reports from the Indian state of Rajasthan on a man he calls The Accidental Archivist and the music he's trying to save.

MICHAEL SULLIVAN, BYLINE: My travel agent, Ashutosh Sharma, started his business in New Delhi when he was just 19. People said it would never work. He didn't listen and the agency has prospered. What he did listen to is music, blues mostly, not easy to get growing up in India.

ASHUTOSH SHARMA: I still am into, like, deep blues and going down the Mississippi Delta, the roots and all that. And I've been, like, listening to Robert Johnson and trying to locate other artists and so on.

SULLIVAN: But the music that's caught his ear lately - and that of his friend and business partner, Ankur Malhotra - is something closer to home, which they discovered when the fledgling label they decided to launch recorded a theater production called "The Manganiyar Seduction" in New Delhi.


SHARMA: Basically, I mean, throughout life we think we're, like, really into music. We listen to a lot of music from all different parts of the world, blah, blah, blah, but we had no clue. Not even, like, in our wildest dreams did we know of the quality of music right here.

SULLIVAN: Ashu quickly realized two things: one, the music was worth preserving; and, two, he needed to hurry if he wanted to capture it in its purest form in the desert of Rajasthan, which the Manganiyars call home.

SHARMA: For me, it was just go and just record right now, I mean, before somebody dies.

SULLIVAN: Three times since, he and Ankur, who now lives in Madison, Wisconsin, have made the grueling 600-mile journey due west from New Delhi to the desert near the border with Pakistan.


SULLIVAN: Tonight's recording outside the home of master musician Lakhar Khan in the tiny village of Raneri. There's no electricity, only the glow from a few flashlights. The 65-year-old Khan tunes his instrument as Ashu and Ankur set up their recording equipment in the dirt courtyard. Inquisitive livestock and children complicated their task.


SULLIVAN: The Sindi sarangi has three main strings made of goat intestine and 23 sympathetic strings made of steel. And in the master's hand, the Sufi-influenced melody he coaxes from it is transformative.


SHARMA: The range of that instrument is amazing. I mean, it just kind of touches you and moves you. The sadness that it can bring is way beyond a slide guitar, and it can brighten that happiness as well with the sound.


SULLIVAN: The next afternoon, another journey to another village, still deeper in the desert.


SULLIVAN: Ashu and Ankur have convinced 75-year-old kamancha master Sakar Khan and his son Darra to give an informal performance outdoors, in a goatherd shelter next to a pond.


SULLIVAN: Sakar Khan's brother joins them on the flute-like murli before bowing out and letting the father and son take over. Darra played his father's instrument - a family heirloom over 300 years old that still sounds sweet. The kamancha is another stringed instrument, something like the balalaika, that has roots in Central Asia, brought here by Muslim conquerors centuries ago.


SULLIVAN: Ashu just sits and listens, as if in a trance.

SHARMA: And they were talking, walking, singing, dancing and fighting amongst themselves with their two kamanchas. And while doing all this, they were also playing together.


SULLIVAN: The kamancha, the Sindi sarangi, the flute-like algoza, all are unique to this community of Muslim artists who were once court musicians for the local Hindu rulers or Rajputs. The musicians, a kind of bridge, Ashu says, between the two religions.

SHARMA: They were basically considered like a local goddess' kids. And the way to get to that local goddess, Hindu goddess - these are Muslim musicians - to get her blessings, you need to call the Manganiyars to play at any ceremony, whether it's a birth or marriage or whatever. So, that's what kept them going throughout this period, the last so many hundreds of years. And these were their patrons, and they took care of them basically.

SULLIVAN: Then came independence and partition in 1947, and the Rajputs saw their lands taken, and the Manganiyars were largely abandoned. Only in the last 20 or 30 years has the Hindu upper class started regaining its wealth, running forts and hotels for tourists. And that, says Ashu, has been a mixed blessing for the Manganiyar musicians who now play mostly for tourists. More work, yes, but...

SHARMA: Because of the commercialization now, the traditional music is basically dying. I mean, they could be singing the latest Hindi Bollywood song with all the folk instruments and 8 out of 10 people wouldn't know. And slowly the next generation is realizing you can sing whatever and get away with anything, so they're also not learning the traditional music.

SULLIVAN: What also alarms Ashu is the lack of skilled instrument makers. The best kamancha maker, for instance, has essentially abandoned his craft. He can earn far more making sofas in the big city.


SULLIVAN: The final performance of this trip is in the village of Sanawada - a few dozen simple huts and a few upscale concrete houses, about 80 miles from the tourist town of Jaiselmer. The night air is cool, the sky impossibly bright with stars, and the star of this performance - a 55-year-old blind singer and harmonium player, Nahal Khan.


NAHAL KHAN: (Singing in foreign language)

SULLIVAN: This area of Rajasthan is dotted with wind turbines to help generate energy, hundreds of them rising from the desert, their huge fans turning slowly in the breeze. It's impossible not to see a little Don Quixote in Ashu's effort - a man tilting at windmills to save obscure music few people even know exist, let alone want. His record label has put out two albums of the Manganiyars' music so far. Neither of them has broken even, but they are starting to sell a little.

SHARMA: We - all of us - think that there are enough idiots like us in the world who would want to buy this music if it's available to them, because the artists are great and the music is great. So, if you are not connecting the two together in some way, basically, the fault lies in you - not in the music, not in the audience.

SULLIVAN: Half the profits, if any, will go to the artists. And if this idea should take off, Ashu says, the plan is to expand to other parts of India and the world. For now, though, he has no plans of giving up his travel agency, that other impossible dream that became a reality.

SHARMA: No way, 'cause that's now even more important, 'cause it's funding all this exercise and all this madness so far.

SULLIVAN: For NPR News, I'm Michael Sullivan.


KHAN: (singing in foreign language)

WERTHEIMER: This is WEEKEND EDITION from NPR News. Scott Simon is back next Saturday. I'm Linda Wertheimer.

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