STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
All wars bring innovations in weapons and in ways to repair the damage done. Penicillin is one of the more famous examples. It came into use as a treatment for troops in the Second World War.
RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:
The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have brought their own breakthroughs, none more dramatic than the prosthetics that come close to giving back what was lost. And big advances in treating grievous injuries have meant many more troops coming home alive.
There are enough of them who want to stay in uniform that the military is finding ways to accommodate the disabled, which has led to a grand experiment at an army base in Virginia they call the Wounded Warrior Home.
CASEY NOLAN: Hi. I'm Casey Nolan. I'm a project director for Clark Realty Capital, and we're the developer of all the housing at Fort Belvoir, including this innovative home here.
MONTAGNE: As he speaks, Casey Nolan ushers us into a charming four-bedroom cottage, bright yellow, with trellises and a white picket fence. There's no way to tell it's designed to accommodate a wide range of special needs - until you really look.
So this is?
NOLAN: This is the stove top moving down
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MONTAGNE: The stovetop moving down with the push of a button is not a big change, just inches really.
NOLAN: When you're in a wheelchair, it is a game of inches, whether it's the width of the doorway, or it's the height of the counter - how far you can reach.
MONTAGNE: These were just some of the challenges Casey Nolan's company wrestled with when it took over housing on Fort Belvoir nearly a decade ago. That was a time when nearly all military base housing was being turned over to private real estate firms to develop and manage.
Clark Realty's situation was typical. The 2,100 homes it inherited were badly in need of fixing up.
And while it did make some of them handicapped-accessible, Casey Nolan says it was still difficult for the returning wounded. Things like hallways too narrow to turn a wheelchair around.
NOLAN: And it just kind of hit me one day of, you know, what are we doing? Is there a better way to do it? Let's just reinvent this completely.
ALVIN SHELL: You know, I mean for me it was difficult to reach my right hand up and to pull stuff off of the shelf.
MONTAGNE: Alvin Shell was one of several advisers on the design of this home. His expertise was hard-won. Back in 2004, he was an Army lieutenant, a platoon leader in Iraq. They were traveling just outside Baghdad when his convoy was ambushed. An IED hit a truck, trapping one of his sergeants in the burning wreck.
SHELL: I went into the fire, and after putting him out, I caught on fire, because the diesel fuel got all over me. So I had to pull off all my clothes, which were on fire. And my skin was on fire, my body was on fire, my muscles were on fire. So I put myself out and then I jumped back into the firefight.
MONTAGNE: By the time the fight was over, Alvin Shell was badly burned over 30 percent of his body. It would be two years in hospitals and a series of painful skin grafts and surgeries before Alvin shell could begin again.
SHELL: I considered myself, you know, a very top-notch officer and a top-notch soldier. I mean, I closed my eyes, and I woke up, and this was a new life for me.
MONTAGNE: As it happened, another person key to creating the Wounded Warrior Home was also forced to make a new life for himself. A decade ago, one of the country's most celebrated architects, Michael Graves, fell ill with a devastating infection. It left him in a wheelchair, unable to walk. So when he was contacted about this project, Michael Graves wanted in.
MICHAEL GRAVES: When I was interviewed, I rolled in in my wheelchair, and I thought I had a pretty good chance of beating out the competition, because I was with the Wounded Warriors.
MONTAGNE: Now Casey Nolan remembers that story rather differently.
NOLAN: We weren't sure if he'd even respond. I mean, this is just but one or two houses on a military base. And he's known for building institutional buildings around the world. But Michael showed up - showed up to every design meeting, and personally was doing the sketches himself.
MONTAGNE: And brought in to conceptualize the home Michael Graves would design, was the firm IDEO. David Haygood is a partner, and Haygood's war was Vietnam. His hands shake from Parkinson's disease, developed years after he was exposed to Agent Orange. Sitting in the Wounded Warrior home, he marveled at how things have changed since Vietnam.
DAVID HAYGOOD: Back then, there was this feeling about – there was something we called the million-dollar wound, which was, what's the least wound I can get that they'll send me home, out of the Army? The thing that I see now, as I talk to the Wounded Warriors on this project, the number of them with much worse wounds, they want to know when can I get back to my unit.
MONTAGNE: Until the Iraq War, it was unheard of for anyone to stay in uniform after being seriously wounded. And now that's an option. Captain John Votovich is the battalion operations officer on Fort Belvoir.
CAPTAIN JOHN VOTOVICH: This is an all-volunteer army. You know, not to be cavalier about it, but, you know, the old joke is, you know, you signed a blank check to Uncle Sam for up to - and including - your life. And, you know, we have more of a wounded population today that probably wouldn't have survived in earlier generations. They're still productive members of the military. And they will continue to be so.
MONTAGNE: In the years and months after he was wounded, Alvin Shell and his family had to find their own way to accommodate his needs - things as simple as opening the front door.
Outside the Fort Belvoir model home, he shows us how the damage from his burns left him unable to rotate his hand, even to turn a knob. But he can easily hold a key card.
All right, now. Let's try it out here. Now at your house, do you have a button...
SHELL: A push button. Yes, it's actually a key pad, where actually you just push the keypad and we have a combination in that keypad. So we push it and then the door opens up. I don't use a key at the house.
MONTAGNE: But this is even simpler.
SHELL: But this is even better. It's a lot easier to manage. You just literally put it against the door and it opens the door.
MONTAGNE: That automatic door is one of many features that address physical disabilities. But much of this house is also devoted to emotional scars. Huge windows and French doors are everywhere, so one can be aware of their surroundings, inside and out. That's important for soldiers struggling with PTSD. And there's the therapy room, where a Skype connection could replace a trip to the doctor - or as Alvin Shell suggested to the designers, one could quietly process some very painful memories.
SHELL: You know, to have that therapy room and to be able to see outside, just the outside world, and be able to pull the shades when you're not ready for it, and lift the shades when you are ready for it, I mean, that's therapeutic.
MONTAGNE: After he was injured, Alvin Shell was promoted to Captain. And while the Army wanted him to stay in, he decided to leave the service when offered a good job at Homeland Security. We asked would it have made a difference if there'd been a home like this available to him.
SHELL: I - man, maybe. I don't know. You know, and I think if I knew that I could get this housing at every base, it might have. And maybe somebody who does have the injuries that I have, if these houses catch on, and they go from base to base to base, maybe that will change someone's mind to stay in. I don't really regret my decision. But I've got to tell you, you know, I miss it. I miss the Army. I really do.
MONTAGNE: More of these innovative homes will be going up at Fort Belvoir, breaking ground this summer. And there is one other, already built, across the street. A Marine sergeant and his family are living there. He lost both legs six months ago in Afghanistan, and he's still on active duty.
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INSKEEP: You can take a tour of the Wounded Warrior Home at npr.org.