RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:

It's MORNING EDITION, from NPR News. I'm Renee Montagne.

Today in Your Health, tiny tools for pediatric surgery. But first, let's look at treating asthma in children. There's been a dramatic, worldwide increase in childhood asthma. And as NPR's Patti Neighmond reports, some studies suggest that a common medication could be playing a role.

PATTI NEIGHMOND, BYLINE: Dr. John McBride sees lots of kids with asthma. He's a pediatric pulmonologist at Akron Children's Hospital in Ohio. He knew of studies that raised concern about the safety of acetaminophen - brand-named Tylenol - to treat colds and fever in kids with asthma. So he decided to look more closely at the research.

DR. JOHN MCBRIDE: I was stunned.

NEIGHMOND: Because all the studies he looked at showed a link between asthma and acetaminophen.

MCBRIDE: The more acetaminophen somebody takes, the more likely it is that they have asthma. Also, there's an incredible consistency. Everybody around the world who's looked for this association has been able to find it.

NEIGHMOND: In asthma, the airways of the lungs get blocked by mucous and narrow, leading to wheezing and shortness of breath. And the rise in asthma has closely paralleled the increased use of acetaminophen.

Now, there are no scientific studies proving the medication causes asthma, but McBride says it may make asthma worse in kids who already have it.

MCBRIDE: OK. Martez, we've got a...

(SOUNDBITE OF BEEPING)

(SOUNDBITE OF COUGHING)

NEIGHMOND: Nine-month-old Martez coughs and wheezes as Dr. McBride examines him and talks with his mom, Ceasha Moorer, about his asthma.

CEASHA MOORER: He coughs. He wheezes. There are multiple symptoms. He works very hard to breathe. When he's excited from crawling or even laughing, then he breathes really hard.

NEIGHMOND: In the past, when Martez got a cold, Moorer gave him Tylenol. But it seemed to make his symptoms worse. At McBride's suggestion, she stopped using it. Then one day, her aunt was looking after Martez when he had a cold.

MOORER: And I told her don't give him Tylenol. I didn't specify that it was acetaminophen. And she actually gave him a cold medicine, but it seemed to make him kind of worse. And I looked at the active ingredients, and acetaminophen was in the active ingredients.

NEIGHMOND: In fact, acetaminophen is an ingredient in many cough and cold products, including Nyquil, Robitussin and Theraflu. It might exacerbate asthma because it decreases levels of a molecule called glutathione, which protects the lungs.

MCBRIDE: Removing the beneficial effect of glutathione exactly at a time that children's lungs are being irritated might end up being just one factor that contributes to the onset of an asthma attack.

NEIGHMOND: So McBride says don't give acetaminophen to a child who has asthma. Some doctors say it's too soon for that advice. Dr. Stanley Szefler heads of pediatric pharmacology at National Jewish Health in Denver. He says many factors could play a role in the rise of asthma.

DR. STANLEY SZEFLER: Vitamin D insufficiency or dietary changes or air pollution or better control of infections are perhaps all related to the increasing prevalence of asthma.

NEIGHMOND: And he says it's very important to control a fever. Dr. McBride agrees, but says ibuprofen is a safer bet - at least until ongoing studies provide answers about the safety of acetaminophen for kids with asthma.

Patti Neighmond, NPR News.

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