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From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish.

ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:

And I'm Robert Siegel.

Rick Santorum has been shaking up the Republican presidential race and many polls show him running even with Mitt Romney. A win tomorrow in Michigan's primary would deal a considerable blow to Romney who hails from the state. Santorum is a former senator from Pennsylvania, best known as a culture warrior. What is less known is what he did after losing his re-election bid in 2006.

As NPR's Tamara Keith reports, Santorum followed a path taken by many former lawmakers.

TAMARA KEITH, BYLINE: After 16 years in Congress, Rick Santorum found himself in need of a new job. And like so many before him, he found work inside the Beltway. Santorum left Congress, but he never left Washington, though that would be hard to tell just listening to him on the campaign trail.

RICK SANTORUM: I come from southwestern Pennsylvania, the heart of the steel country, the heart of manufacturing, and it's been devastated. I'm coming to change the entire nature of Washington, DC. It's been one of the benefits, frankly, of being out and looking in.

KEITH: Those clips came from an ABC debate in January and an appearance on NBC's "Meet the Press." What Santorum fails to mention is among his post-Senate jobs, he worked for a Washington lobbying firm, American Continental Group.

CRAIG HOLMAN: He clearly was at least what I could call a stealth lobbyist.

KEITH: Craig Holman is the government affairs lobbyist for Public Citizen, a watchdog group. To be clear, Santorum wasn't technically a lobbyist. A financial disclosure form he filed last year lists $65,000 in income from American Continental Group for consultant compensation.

HOLMAN: What we saw with Rick Santorum is the typical pattern, where a member of Congress leaves Congress and immediately joins a lobbying firm and is employed by lobbying entities and lobbying clients.

KEITH: Holman has looked at the pattern and says more than 40 percent of former members actually register as lobbyists. But others, like Santorum and Newt Gingrich and many high-profile Democrats, too, avoid the unpopular title of lobbyist by consulting or calling themselves consultants instead.

HOLMAN: Doing lobbying strategizing, organizing a lobbying campaign, and then perhaps having someone else pick up the telephone and do the actual lobbying contact on his behalf.

KEITH: According to his financial statement, in 2010, Santorum brought in six-figure paychecks from a number of different sources, including the Ethics and Public Policy Center in Washington, CONSOL Energy and The Clapham Group. He was also on the board of Universal Health Services. Santorum's campaign didn't respond to requests for information about his consulting work. Kathy Kiely is with the Sunlight Foundation.

KATHY KIELY: That's a lot of money to pay somebody for advice. They're providing you their expertise. What is Rick Santorum's expertise? Where does that lie? It lies on Capitol Hill.

KEITH: Another thing that could challenge the former Pennsylvania senator's outsider status is his address. He and his family live here on Creamcup Lane in the affluent Washington D.C. suburb of Great Falls, Virginia. They moved here in 2007, less than a year after he lost his re-election bid.

DAVID DOYLE: Most people don't really know what Rick Santorum has been doing since his last position as a U.S. Senator.

KEITH: David Doyle is a Republican political consultant at the Marketing Resource Group in Lansing, Michigan. He says if more voters knew what Santorum has been up to, it could be a problem for him, depending on how he handles it.

DOYLE: It's hard to claim that you're an outsider when you live in D.C. or one of the suburbs, and all of your work is in Washington, D.C.

KEITH: The Romney campaign has picked up on this and is trying to use it against Santorum. Last week in Arizona, Santorum defended himself against these insider charges, saying he was an outsider, even when he was in Congress.

SANTORUM: Going in there, not being one of the crowd, not being part of the establishment, shaking things up and making a difference. That's the record I have.

KEITH: This primary season, it seems every candidate is looking to claim outsider credentials because having Washington experience is seen by many as a burden rather than an asset. Tamara Keith, NPR News, Washington.

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