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From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish.


And I'm Robert Siegel. Uruguay boasts that it has the longest Carnival celebration, not just in Latin America, but in the world. It goes on for 40 days. Makeshift stages pop up all around the capital city of Montevideo for performances of a choral music called murga. Murga is both a form of entertainment and a sociopolitical commentary that survived the military dictatorship of the 1970s.

Martina Castro reports from Montevideo.


MARTINA CASTRO, BYLINE: Listen, the song says.


CASTRO: This song tells the story of the oldest murga choir in Uruguay. It's called Los Curtidores de Hongos.


CASTRO: That guttural, forceful tone of singing has been with murga from the beginning. Eduardo Rabelino, director of the Museum of Carnaval in Montevideo, says murga was working class. Street salesmen would sing in the same tone that they'd shout out on the streets.

EDUARDO RABELINO: (Foreign Language Spoken).

CASTRO: Some were born of labor unions, Rabelino says, six or seven street musicians who'd get together to have a good time and sing about what was happening in society. The tradition came to Uruguay via Cadiz, Spain more than 100 years ago, where they have a similar choral music called chirigota.

Today, a murga choir is made up of 13 voices singing complex harmonies accompanied by three percussionists, plus a choral director.


CASTRO: They wear elaborate, circus-like costumes and makeup and compete every Carnaval. Now, some choirs even have sponsors and CDs, but they still parody the talk of the town that year, be it corrupt politicians, a spike in violence or that annoying recording you get when you call for a taxi.


CASTRO: Daniel Angel Carluccio is the director of Los Curtidores de Hongos.

DANIEL ANGEL CARLUCCIO: (Foreign Language Spoken).

CASTRO: He says the riskiest time for murga was during Uruguay's military dictatorship of the '70s and early '80s. Carluccio had just joined a group then. He says when choirs wanted to criticize the government, they had to use metaphors to avoid being censored. Murga choirs formed a bond with the public during that time.


CASTRO: Today, you can see that bond at the tablados, makeshift stages that are set up all over Montevideo, like this one at the Defensor Sporting Club.


CASTRO: This is Agarrate Catalina, one of the younger murga choirs and last year's competition winner. The name is a popular saying here that basically means, watch out because something's about to happen. In just one song, they'll go from making fun of hippie culture to criticizing their former president.

YAMANDU CARDOZO: (Foreign Language Spoken).

CASTRO: Murga attacks everything, says Yamandu Cardozo. He's the director of Agarrate Catalina.


CASTRO: Dozens of young murga choirs have formed since the '90s. Groups enunciate better now. There are female singers and different instruments, but Cardozo says it's important to preserve certain elements of how murga has always been.

CARDOZO: (Foreign Language Spoken).

CASTRO: Of the people who sing murga, Cardozo says, the majority of them make a living doing something else. They work in a factory or an office. They're artists for a month and a half and then go back to their daily lives. So, he says, that's why murga doesn't represent the masses. They are the masses.


CASTRO: Cardozo says, when it's time for the music to begin, it's just 13 guys singing their hearts out in front of their people.


CASTRO: For NPR News, I'm Martina Castro in Montevideo.

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