RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:
Two more American soldiers were killed in Afghanistan today. Initial reports say at least one of the attackers was an Afghan soldier. It's the latest case in which Western troops face mortal danger from the Afghans they've come to help.
STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
These attacks strike at the heart of the U.S. plan to withdraw from Afghanistan. Before turning over security to Afghans, NATO troops want to train them, which means very small groups of Americans will stake their lives working with larger groups of Afghan soldiers.
MONTAGNE: To prepare for that mission, U.S. troops get training of their own. At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the Army has created a small patch of Afghanistan. NPR's Tom Bowman went to see the practice runs for a vital mission.
TOM BOWMAN, BYLINE: We're walking to the village of Marghoz. It's kind of a jumble of buildings. There's a mosque in the center with a blue dome.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: (Chanting in foreign language)
BOWMAN: American officers and Afghan role-players gather in cafe at this fake village. They're seated around a long table. Afghan flags are hanging on the walls. Tea is served.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: (Foreign language spoken)
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: He say: We got some issues, actually, we will discuss with the coalition forces. We need some more training.
BOWMAN: This kind of shura, or meeting, is common in Afghanistan. When Americans attend, they often lead the discussion. Today, the idea is for the Afghans to run the meeting. So the senior American, Lieutenant Colonel Mark Schmitt, listens and takes notes. After more than a half hour, he finally speaks.
LIEUTENANT COLONEL MARK SCHMITT: Saheeb, first I would say, you have a security problem here. We just had mortars that killed three policemen, and you have letters of intimidation.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #3: (Foreign language spoken)
BOWMAN: Colonel Schmitt did exactly what instructors want him to do: Listen, hang back, let the Afghans lead.
MAJOR SCOTT MCKLEARN: And it's actually been very hard for us to get to that point.
BOWMAN: Major Scott McKlearn is one of the instructors.
MCKLEARN: The first couple of shuras, really, the Americans seemed like they ran it. And now they're getting it. They understand that the Afghans have to be in that leadership role once they get over there.
BOWMAN: The idea for these training teams is only three months old. Commanders in Afghanistan asked for the teams. They know time is running out to get the Afghans ready. By this fall, another 22,000 U.S. troops will leave, and the Afghans will have to pick up the slack. So Fort Polk moved fast to set up the training course. The first graduates will head to Afghanistan this spring. That's where Colonel Schmitt's heading. He'll be in charge of one of 50 Army training teams deploying to Afghanistan. Colonel Schmitt was plucked from an assignment in Oklahoma to take this three-week training course. Like many here, he'll be his first deployment to Afghanistan.
SCHMITT: I've been to Iraq, did a military training team, transition team, in 2009-10. I think it's going to be very similar.
BOWMAN: But many officers who have served in both places say Afghanistan is a tougher training assignment. They'll need to advise and assist the Afghans on just about everything, from combat operations and logistics to police work and medical care - no small task. Afghan soldiers and police aren't well-educated. There's desertion, drug abuse and more.
WAHIDULLAH NAQIBULLAH: The big problem is in Afghanistan, for the Afghanistan government, is the corruption.
BOWMAN: That's Wahidullah Naqibullah. He's one of the role-players at Fort Polk. His job is to portray an Afghan police officer. In real life, he's from Kabul and worked with American forces in Afghanistan as a translator. These American training teams make sense, he says. Afghans must take more responsibility.
NAQIBULLAH: Because people seen in the past there was coalition forces doing everything for Afghanistan. But now they're trying to do - to put the Afghanistan government in front and Afghanistan government take over Afghanistan.
BOWMAN: To make that happen, the Americans and Afghans will have to work closely together, more than they have in the past. Across the base, there's another mock village. The wind kicks up the dust at a crossroads. There's a fake police station, a restaurant, a headquarters building. For three weeks, Colonel Mike Kasales calls the place home. Kasales is the officer who will be leading the first batch of teams to Afghanistan sometime in April. He served in the Balkans and Iraq.
COLONEL MIKE KASALES: I have not been to Afghanistan.
BOWMAN: So he's a Fort Polk, learning how to work with Afghan counterparts. Kasales says the key is developing close relationships.
KASALES: The Afghan people, they're a very honest and honorable people. As long as we conduct ourselves accordingly, it will absolutely be a great relationship as we can see in that mission.
BOWMAN: How would you paint success?
KASALES: Yeah, that's a great question, because in nine months, obviously, we're not going to bring to conclusion something that's been going on for 10 years there. For me, success is if it's better than when we got there when we leave, then that's success.
BOWMAN: However the colonel defines success, he knows his small training teams are in for a tougher mission. There's been case after case of Afghans shooting American troops they're supposed to be working with. And these new American training teams will have to trust the Afghan forces even more, because they'll need the Afghans for protection since there will be fewer U.S. combat troops.
KASALES: So therefore, it is inherently more dangerous. If there's a gunfight, you've got less guns.
Thanks for having us.
BOWMAN: Across the base, back at the makeshift village, the shura, that meeting is breaking up.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #4: Thank you very much for you to come here and listen to the problems of the Marghoz people.
BOWMAN: Colonel Schmitt, the training team leader, who is working to listen rather than lead the meeting, walks outside with the role-players. Suddenly, another role-player approaches this cluster of officers. He pushes past the American guards and pulls a plastic cord from his flowing robes.
(SOUNDBITE OF YELLING AND AN EXPLOSION)
BOWMAN: A suicide bomber. The village dissolves into chaos, and snipers shoot from the roofs.
(SOUNDBITE OF GUNFIRE)
BOWMAN: American and Afghan troops dive for cover and begin returning fire. Two role-playing Afghan army leaders are declared dead by the referees. Saheeb, the Afghan general, escapes with a security team. That leaves the American, Colonel Schmitt, in charge.
SCHMITT: Taliban's taken over a truck in the rear. Let's go get the bad guy truck.
(SOUNDBITE OF GUNFIRE)
BOWMAN: For nearly an hour, Schmitt leads the fighting, then helps treat the wounded and calls in a medevac. Once again, Major Scott McKlearn, the instructor, stands nearby, grading the colonel's performance.
MCKLEARN: He's an A. Definitely. He's solid on all of his battle drills. He's a guy who's going to get his team back safely from Afghanistan.
BOWMAN: But he says the American colonel and his soldiers did too much when the attack began.
MCKLEARN: They looked around at their Afghan counterparts, and so the American guys pretty much jumped in the leadership role. In the absence of them doing something, they kind of did take charge.
BOWMAN: The Americans took charge. Colonel Schmitt knows that's what the Afghans are supposed to do. He jokes about what he'll say to his role-playing Afghan general who left the battlefield.
SCHMITT: I'm going to say, Saheeb, where did you go? Just like that. And he's going to say, oh, I went back in the building - I mean, whatever he says.
BOWMAN: The colonel shrugs. He says he's not worried whether real Afghan troops will lead the fight.
SCHMITT: Because they're going to kind of have to, because there's not going to be that many of us.
BOWMAN: Whether he's right will be determined soon enough. Sometime in April, Colonel Schmitt and his small team will begin a nine-month deployment outside Kandahar advising an Afghan army brigade. Tom Bowman, NPR News.