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It's MORNING EDITION, from NPR News. I'm Steve Inskeep.

RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:

And I'm Renee Montagne.

It will be a year ago this Sunday that a powerful earthquake shook Japan and sent a devastating tsunami crashing onto its northeast coast. Today, farmers in the region still face an uncertain future. Radiation continues to leak from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant. That plant suffered multiple meltdowns immediately after last year's natural disaster. Scientists say the amount of radioactive material being released now is not a significant threat, but as Doualy Xaykaothao reports, farmers are hurting.

(SOUNDBITE OF WATER RUSHING)

DOUALY XAYKAOTHAO, BYLINE: That's the sound of decontamination in Fukushima prefecture. Chiharu Kubota is using a high-pressure water gun to hose down a building in the mountain village of Kawauchi, which lies partly inside the area deemed unsafe because of high levels of radiation. Kubota has washed about 138 homes, and is starting to see people return to Kawauchi.

CHIHARU KUBOTA: (Foreign language spoken)

XAYKAOTHAO: About 200 people are already back in the village, he says, but it's different, of course. Right now, only the elderly are here. No children have returned.

Yoshiko Watanabe and her husband are farmers. They used to grow vegetables and sell them locally, but that ended after the earthquake. For nine months, they lived in an evacuation center. Now they're home, but they can't farm because the soil is still contaminated. They're trying to get by on government hand-outs and some compensation from Tepco, the owner of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant.

YOSHIKO WATANABE: (Through translator) Nothing is better, but I am here right now, so I feel happier. Compared to other people, I am alive.

XAYKAOTHAO: Some 20 miles northwest in Nihonmatsu, the streets are also empty of children and activity, but along a city center walkway, one store is still open.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

UNIDENTIFIED MAN: (Singing in foreign language)

XAYKAOTHAO: But not many customers are responding to the traditional sweet potato song, and 75-year-old Hisae Kanno isn't doing much business.

HISAE KANNO: (Through translator) This area with the shops, of course farmers, and sight-seeing and tourism, they're business is all going down. So everything is bad because of the radiation.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

UNIDENTIFIED MAN: (Singing in foreign language)

XAYKAOTHAO: Minoru Nemoto is the man in charge of radiation decontamination at Nihonmatsu City Hall. This is where farmers and worried consumers can bring vegetables and other food to get it tested for radioactivity.

MINORU NEMOTO: (Through translator) Radiation is the biggest issue to be solved. Otherwise, people won't feel safe or comfortable living in Fukushima again. People have doubts about everything, and they're skeptical about anything they hear.

XAYKAOTHAO: Nemoto says there are a lot of problems with the decontamination process, such as where to dispose of contaminated soil. He wants the government to come up with a more efficient approach, so the land in Fukushima will be clean within five years.

(SOUNDBITE OF DOG BARKING)

XAYKAOTHAO: There's no sign of decontamination at Yoshi-ichi Takeda's small dairy farm.

YOSHI-ICHI TAKEDA: (Foreign language spoken)

XAYKAOTHAO: He says the government still won't let him feed grass to his cows because of possible contamination. But he has no idea when someone will come around to help clean up. Takeda has been promised some financial help, but he says it's like everything that he's been told by the government: It's just a promise. It's been a year since the disasters. He's received nothing yet. His neighbor, rice grower Aiko Saito, says it's difficult for all the farmers around here.

AIKO SAITO: (Through translator) Most of the people around this area lost a lot of money because of the radiation. Her kids don't eat what she grows, and people won't buy the vegetables and rice, either.

XAYKAOTHAO: Saito says she hasn't had officials check her produce for radiation recently, but her grandkids found low readings on their Geiger counters. So she's hoping life in Fukushima is starting to improve.

For NPR News, I'm Doualy Xaykaothao in Nihonmatsu, northeast Japan.

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