To Greece now, and one impact of severe cuts in the public sector. The country's international creditors have demanded the cuts in exchange for billions in loans to help Greece avoid default.

But as NPR's Sylvia Poggioli tells us, the austerity measures are endangering Greece's vast cultural heritage. Sylvia takes us to Olympia, the site of a recent armed robbery.


SYLVIA POGGIOLI BYLINE: This is the sanctuary of Zeus, the father of the gods. Lush pines and olive groves are filled with chirping birds. The one guard at the site looks nervously at the few visitors.

There's still a sense of shock in Olympia following the theft last month at the Museum of the Olympic Games, when armed robbers broke into the building and tied up the single guard on duty.

Archaeologist Konstantinos Antonopoulos says they ran off with 77 priceless objects.

KONSTANTINOS ANTONOPOULOS: There were votive figurines, chariots, horses; but the most precious and valuable exhibit that they took was a golden ring of the Mycenaean time. And it had a picture on it, very important, from the early times of the games.

BYLINE: That ring was more than 3,000 years old.

Even before the economic crisis, Greek governments were never generous in safeguarding the antiquities of the cradle of civilization. Less than one percent of the budget was earmarked for the country's hundreds of museums, archaeological sites and monuments. The Ministry of Culture says austerity policies have cut that sum in half. Ten percent of the culture ministry's archaeologists have been either laid off or forced to retire. And the number of guards has also been cut in half, to less than 2,000.

Nemea is another major archaeological site, with an imposing temple in honor of the god Zeus. But today is Sunday.

PROFESSOR STEPHEN MILLER: It's closed and the reason it's closed is because there are not enough guards to keep it open.

BYLINE: Archaeologist Stephen Miller looks nervously at the site's thin, wire fence. He's the former director of excavations at Nemea, carried out under the auspices of U.C. Berkeley. He's known for his discovery of the ancient stadium where Pan-Hellenic games were held.

Miller is angry with Greece's international creditors – the IMF, the E.U. Commission and European Central Bank, known collectively as the Troika – for a policy of indiscriminate budget slashing.

MILLER: It's very shortsighted. This is the last place you should make your cuts. I would like to think the Troika would understand that. The antiquities of Greece are not recognized for what they are, and that is the treasure of Greece, the resource that Greece has that is unique to Greece.

BYLINE: Greeks are alarmed by the increased risk to their cultural heritage. Just a few weeks before the Olympia robbery, Athens' National Gallery was the victim of the first theft in its 112-year history. There, too, there was only one guard.

The loot included a Mondrian and a Picasso that had been a gift of the artist to the Greek people, in recognition of their resistance to the Nazi occupation.

Despina Katsoumba, president of the Union of Greek Archaeologists, is convinced both robberies were carried out on commission. She blames Greece's creditors for exposing its cultural heritage to plunder.

DESPINA KATSOUMBA: If you go to a country and you destroy the country and you make everyone poor, then say that this country is in danger, this country is in war, this country is the Titanic; that we deliberately want to dismantle the public sector of Greece, you say to private collectors - you may order whatever you want from a Greek museum.

BYLINE: Olympia archaeologist Kostantinos Antonopoulos says antiquities are in need of special safeguards.

ANTONOPOULOS: They are like children, they cannot protect themselves. We will appeal to other European and not only countries to make a shield for cultural heritage.

BYLINE: Greek archaeologists are preparing a campaign to ask for international help and solidarity to protect a cultural heritage that belongs not only to Greece but to the entire world.

Sylvia Poggioli, NPR News, Athens.

Copyright © 2012 NPR. All rights reserved. Visit our website terms of use and permissions pages at for further information.

NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by a contractor for NPR, and accuracy and availability may vary. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Please be aware that the authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio.



Please keep your community civil. All comments must follow the Community rules and terms of use, and will be moderated prior to posting. NPR reserves the right to use the comments we receive, in whole or in part, and to use the commenter's name and location, in any medium. See also the Terms of Use, Privacy Policy and Community FAQ.

NPR thanks our sponsors

Become an NPR sponsor

Support comes from