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And I'm Melissa Block.

Over the weekend, Japan honored the victims of the earthquake and tsunami that destroyed much of its northeast coast one year ago. And Japan's prime minister promised to help rebuild the region. But obstacles exist that go beyond the disaster. Long before last year, the economy of northeast Japan was declining, its population dwindling.

As NPR's Anthony Kuhn reports, the region not only needs rebuilding, it may also need rethinking.

(SOUNDBITE OF KENDO PRACTICE)

ANTHONY KUHN, BYLINE: With a fierce yell and a resounding thwack, 13-year-old Japanese student Nanami Usui brings her bamboo sword down on her opponent.

(SOUNDBITE OF KENDO PRACTICE)

KUHN: The class in Kendo, or Japanese swordsmanship, is helping to rebuild the confidence of Usui and other kids in the town of Minamisanriku, whose homes were washed away by last year's tsunami.

Usui says she dreams of being a police officer, but she doesn't know yet where she wants to live and work.

NANAMI USUI: (Through Translator) Most high school students here have dreams about their future careers. I suppose if you want to become a fisherman you can stay here. But if you want to do anything else, you have to leave this town.

(SOUNDBITE OF OCEAN WAVES)

KUHN: Harsh winds and waves lash Minamisanriku's sparsely settled coastline. Far from Tokyo's neon-lit cityscapes and Kyoto's serene gardens, this is a part of Japan you seldom hear about. It has an older population, fewer jobs, more suicides, and more tsunamis than the rest of the country.

Nobutaka Chiba is a town assemblyman and Usui's kendo teacher. He notes that the last big tsunami in 1960 largely wiped Minamisanriku off the map.

NOBUTAKA CHIBA: (Through Translator) My father's generation rebuilt this town just the way it was before. But it won't be that way this time. I believe this town has to be reborn.

KUHN: This time, the government plans to erect a giant sea wall to protect the town's commercial area and move residents up into the hills. It'll take a decade to complete. Right now, smashed boats, crumpled cars and mountains of debris still await removal.

Kiyotaka Miura, the local official in charge of planning reconstruction, says things aren't as bad as they look.

KIYOTAKA MIURA: (Foreign language spoken)

KUHN: It may appear to be going slowly and this may worry some residents, he concedes. But we're definitely making progress with the relocation. It will take time and we hope residents will be patient.

It took the central government eight months to come up with a reconstruction budget and 11 months to create an agency to administer it.

Out of a population of more than 18,000 in Minamisanriku, the tsunami killed around a thousand; 2,000 were given temporary shelter elsewhere, and another thousand just packed up and left for good.

Taxi driver Toshiei Sasaki, who is living in temporary housing, says his patience is wearing thin.

TOSHIEI SASAKI: (Through Translator) The temporary housing is only supposed to be used for two years, and one year has already passed. More and more people are leaving this town every day. If they don't speed up the reconstruction, we'll lose our population.

KUHN: Since the earthquake, architects, economists, and bureaucrats have suggested some futuristic plans for a new northeast coast with high-tech industries, alternative energy power grids and elevated, tsunami-proof coastal towns.

But Tsunehide Chino, an assistant professor at Iwate Prefectural University, says these ideas are impractical and northeasterners should stick to government-subsidized fishing and farming.

PROFESSOR TSUNEHIDE CHINO: (Through Translator) What Tokyo and the central government are trying to do is transplant industry to generate income and enrich the northeast. I think that's the wrong way. Northeasterners should still make their living from natural resources, just as they have been doing.

KUHN: Chino says that Tokyoites mostly think of the northeast as a place that gave them tasty salmon, migrant laborers, and cheap electricity from the Fukushima nuclear plant - that is, until three of its reactors melted down after last year's tsunami. It's that kind of attitude that Japan needs to rethink, Chino says, so that northeasterners get a better economic deal and more recognition.

Anthony Kuhn, NPR News, Tokyo.

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