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If you're convicted of nearly any crime in New York State, you'll soon be required to hand over a DNA sample. The governor is expected to sign a bill that will make New York the first state to require such samples of nearly all convicted criminals. It will also make New York's DNA database one of the largest in the nation. The bill had wide support from law enforcement. The sample itself is a simple as a swab of the cheek, but it's the information that civil rights groups are so concerned about.

Here's NPR's Joel Rose.

JOEL ROSE, BYLINE: New York legislators approved the DNA bill early today. It was part of an all-night voting session that stretched right into the morning, and a weary-looking Governor Andrew Cuomo put out this video message.


GOVERNOR ANDREW CUOMO: We will be first state in the nation to have a complete DNA databank. With this legislation in place, New York will become the first state in the nation to collect all DNA samples from all convicted felons.

ROSE: Actually, nearly all states, including New York, already collect DNA samples from convicted felons, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures. What's remarkable about the New York bill is that it would expand the state's database to include DNA from people convicted of nearly any crime, even misdemeanors as minor as jumping over a subway turnstile.

DONNA LIEBERMAN: Instead of helping us solve crimes, this may result in the conviction of innocent New Yorkers.

ROSE: Donna Lieberman directs the New York Civil Liberties Union. She's concerned the strain of all that additional DNA will overwhelm the state crime labs that handle it.

LIEBERMAN: What we've seen in other jurisdictions is that when you engage in the massive expansion of the database like that, there are shortcuts that are taken, and there's negligence, there's fraud, there's contamination. And it's really an enormous hurdle for defendants.

ROSE: The bill's authors did exempt minor marijuana convictions from the DNA reporting requirement. But its backers, including Richard Aborn at the Citizens Crime Commission of New York City, say there's a good argument for including even the most minor offenses in the database.

RICHARD ABORN: We know from lots of studies and lots of data now that violent criminals very often begin their careers as nonviolent criminals. And the earlier you can get a nonviolent criminal's DNA in the databank, the higher your chances are of apprehending the right person.

ROSE: Which may be why the bill has enjoyed the support of district attorneys all across the state. Aborn says the bill's authors did a good job of making sure that defense lawyers will have access to the database too. And he points out that DNA can be used to prove innocence as well as guilt.

ABORN: DNA is really the 21st-century fingerprint. And it's actually a more accurate fingerprint because it has a higher degree of reliability.

ROSE: But Donna Lieberman at the NYCLU disagrees.

LIEBERMAN: This isn't just like a fingerprint. This is like a whole range of genetic material.

ROSE: Material that can potentially reveal far more about you, including your genetic and family background. The NYCLU and others wanted to see stronger oversight of the state agency that will handle the database. In fact, so did Assemblyman Joseph Lentol of Brooklyn, who co-sponsored the bill. But Lentol thinks the benefits of the DNA database outweigh the risks.

ASSEMBLYMAN JOSEPH LENTOL: If you've committed a crime and you get into the database, all this does is put you in the database. And it will sit there forever so long as you don't commit another crime. Nobody is going to use it. No health agencies are going to have access to it.

ROSE: Maybe not now, say privacy advocates. But they worry that once the DNA is on file, there's no going back. Joel Rose, NPR News, New York.

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