RACHEL MARTIN, HOST:
This is WEEKEND EDITION from NPR News. I'm Rachel Martin. This morning, NPR has new details about Army Staff Sergeant Robert Bales. He's the man suspected of killing 16 unarmed Afghan civilians in a shooting rampage one week ago. After four tours of duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, many are asking if the stress of combat should have kept Bales from the war zone. Coming up, we talk with the former vice chief of staff of the Army, General Peter Chiarelli, about the military's efforts to grapple with the invisible wounds of war, like post-traumatic stress. But first, NPR's Martin Kaste, who spoke with those who knew Bales and the kind of soldier he was.
MARTIN KASTE, BYLINE: Friends and neighbors have described Robert Bales as a dedicated husband and father, and they keep mentioning his sunny disposition. Bales' fellow soldiers tell the same story.
CAPTAIN CHRIS ALEXANDER: He always kind of had a smile on his face.
KASTE: Captain Chris Alexander, Bales' platoon leader in Iraq. This was 2006 and 2007 during the surge. Bales headed up a fire team - that's a subunit in one of Alexander's squads.
ALEXANDER: He was one of those guys that can just kind of joke around during downtime. And when it's time to put your body on run and leave the wire, you know, it's all business - checking his guys, making sure they're all set up ready to go and get up in the hash and do his thing.
KASTE: They were part of a Stryker brigade, deployed from Washington State's Fort Lewis. The Strykers are eight-wheel vehicles that are armored for combat, but still nimble enough for the tight quarters of urban warfare. Alexander says the vehicle's armor caused some soldiers to get complacent about keeping an eye out - but not Bales. And one day in the city of Mosul, his attentiveness saved lives.
ALEXANDER: A guy popped around the corner with a RPG launcher and took a shot at us. He saw it right away before the guy launched, and he actually hit the guy and caused the round to go high, so it missed all of us.
KASTE: Bales was decorated for good conduct, but he never received a medal for valor. But it turns out he was nominated for one, after the Battle of Najaf in January of 2007. He was nominated by Captain - now Major - Brent Clemmer. Stationed here in Washington, Clemmer has known about Bales' alleged role in the massacre for almost a week now, but he's been reluctant to talk to the news media. He agreed to talk to NPR if we didn't record him. He recalls Bales as a really good non-commissioned officer and, quote, "one of those guys who was always positive." He underscores that point with a snapshot of Bales' unit. You can see it at NPR.org. In a group of soldiers posed around a Stryker vehicle, there's Bales - the guy in the middle - with the biggest grin. Bales' old platoon leader, Capt. Alexander, says he's heard the theory that Bales may have snapped, but that's something that's hard for him to picture.
ALEXANDER: He had about the same stress level as any of the rest of us, and he seemed to handle it very well.
KASTE: Still, that was 2007. Since then, a lot has happened to Bales. On his third Iraq tour, he lost part of a foot and he suffered an unspecified traumatic brain injury. And back in the U.S., he failed to get a promotion he'd been hoping for, and then he was told he had to go on a fourth combat deployment, this time to Afghanistan.
ALEXANDER: I've talked to people who have done both Iraq and Afghanistan, and they say they'd pick Iraq any day of the week because Afghanistan is just so brutal. Something just finally - his glass filled up, and that was it.
KASTE: And that's already shaping up as a possible legal defense. On Thursday, Bales' civilian lawyer made a point of introducing reporters to a psychiatrist who has made a career testifying about post-traumatic stress disorder in court. But for many, that explanation isn't sufficient. One week on, Major Clemmer says he still can't get his head around the idea that Bales killed those civilians. And he adds, quote, "You can't forgive it if he did it." Martin Kaste, NPR News, Seattle.