ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
It's ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Robert Siegel.
AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:
And I'm Audie Cornish.
Last night marked the latest deadline for campaigns and superPACs to report their finances. And the new numbers shed light on the biggest donors, some of whom we're profiling in our series "Million Dollar Donors."
SIEGEL: Today, we hear about two Texas businessmen whose names have become well-known in the world of Republican fundraising. One is Bob Perry. He's a Houston homebuilder. Last month, he gave $3 million to the superPAC supporting Mitt Romney. That's nearly half its total take in February.
CORNISH: And then there's Dallas businessman Harold Simmons. He and his wife have given large checks to groups supporting all three of the top GOP candidates, as they attack each other.
NPR's Wade Goodwyn has this profile of two, million-dollar donors.
WADE GOODWYN, BYLINE: In politics, a $5,000 campaign donation is considered extremely generous, thank you. Make a 25- to $50,000, donation and the candidate will dedicate a little shrine to you in their living room, with dollar signs and hearts taped around your picture. Give $100,000; you're pretty darn wealthy, aren't you?
Well, according to the Center for Responsive Politics, the National Institute for Money in State Politics, and Texans for Public Justice, during the last decade, Houston homebuilder Bob Perry has donated $79,944,942.
BILL MILLER: He's been generous and he's been the go-to guy, the first and last ask for Republicans, for as long as I can remember.
GOODWYN: Republican political consultant Bill Miller says that over the last 30 years, Bob Perry has used his money to build the Texas Republican Party. He's been the single largest donor at the national level, too.
Dallas businessman Harold Simmons has not been donating as long as Perry. But in the last eight years, he's made a big impact, donating more than $20 million to the GOP.
MILLER: They both play big. They're very generous, and their checks are large. And when they step in, you know that they're there.
GOODWYN: So what makes Harold Simmons and Bob Perry tick? In the past, Simmons has been drawn to what some might say is the seedier side of presidential campaigns. He gave $3 million to the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth, to torpedo Senator John Kerry's Vietnam War record. To help Senator John McCain in 2008, Simmons gave nearly $3 million more to help pay for an ad that linked Barack Obama to a 1970s radical left wing group called the Weathermen.
(SOUNDBITE OF A POLITICAL AD)
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Beyond the speeches, how much do you know about Barack Obama? What does he really believe? Consider this: United 93 never hit the Capitol on 9/11. But the Capitol was bombed 30 years before, by an American terrorist group called Weather Underground that declared war on the U.S...
GOODWYN: Despite the beautiful voiceover, the Bill Ayres attack strategy didn't get much traction, perhaps because Barack Obama was in elementary school in 1970. But the Swift Boat ads did do meaningful damage to Kerry.
This election cycle, Simmons and his wife have been spreading his money around. Romney, Gingrich and Santorum have all received contributions. Simmons gave another $14 million to Karl Rove's superPAC, the Citizens United effect clearly on display here.
Political observers in Austin speculate this spreading of the wealth has to do with Simmons' main business, a nuclear waste dump in west Texas.
CRAIG MCDONALD: His motive these days is to expand, as much as he can, the volume of waste that comes into the dump.
GOODWYN: Craig McDonald is the head of Texans for Public Justice, which tracks campaign contributions in Texas. McDonald says Simmons' dump takes low-level nuclear waste. But he says it could be the long-term storage solution for high-level nuclear waste. This material is usually stored onsite at the reactor, and is a security and environmental threat to the nation. Given how politically charged the subject is, Simmons is going to need political allies at both the state and federal levels.
MCDONALD: We've also noticed, the last couple years, he not only has been moving money to federal candidates, but he's also been moving a lot of campaign money to state leaders, in states that right now don't have a location to place their own low-level nuclear waste. So he's out there shopping.
GOODWYN: Ross Ramsey has been covering Texas politics for more than 30 years, and is the editor of the online journal the Texas Tribune. Ramsey says Simmons and homebuilder Bob Perry, while pretty conservative, are nevertheless considered mainstream - not Tea Party - Republicans. In fact, Perry, who relies on immigrant laborers to staff his homebuilding construction crews, successfully blocked the most severe immigration reform measures that Tea Party supporters wanted to pass in Texas.
ROSS RAMSEY: No, I think this is the establishment. Perry is more of, you know, what might be called a movement conservative. He's supported socially conservative and fiscally conservative Republicans. I think Simmons is more of a classic establishment Republican. He's supported, you know, business-friendly conservatives.
GOODWYN: If Mitt Romney finally wins the nomination, he can expect a warm and lucrative welcome in the Lone Star State. And that goes for whoever the eventual Republican nominee turns out to be.
Wade Goodwyn, NPR News, Dallas.
CORNISH: And you can learn more about our series profiling million-dollar donors at NPR.org.
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