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DAVID GREENE, HOST:

As we just heard, Maikel Nabil Sanad was arrested for accusing the Egyptian military of human rights abuses, specifically forced virginity tests for female protestors. One 25-year-old woman, Samira Ibrahim, complained in court after the military performed that test on her, but she lost her court case this month. While the military tribunal's verdict was a setback, it has not slowed activists down in their effort to stop the armed forces from arresting and trying civilians. Merritt Kennedy sent this report from Cairo. And a word to our listeners, there is some graphic language in this story.

MERRIT KENNEDY, BYLINE: After the verdict, Samira Ibrahim stepped out of the military court, sobbing. This was the culmination of a multi-case legal battle to hold the military accountable for subjecting her, and six other women, to a so-called virginity check - a forced penetration to check for hymen blood. Amnesty International has decried the procedure as a form of torture.

The incident happened more than a year ago, during the first month of military rule. The seven women and dozens of others were arrested when the military forcibly broke up a protest in Tahrir Square.

Samira Ibrahim describes what happened after her arrest.

SAMIRA IBRAHIM: (Through translator) First they made us take off our clothes to search us. There were soldiers and military officers standing and watching while we were being searched, naked. And also when we were subjected to the virginity testing, they were watching, they were making fun, they were humiliating us.

KENNEDY: Reem Saad is the head of the Middle East Studies Center at the American University in Cairo.

REEM SAAD: It is unprecedented that just a young woman from upper Egypt comes out and challenges the military and the patriarchal order, in a way that is very difficult for someone in her position.

KENNEDY: In December, Samira won a legal victory in a separate civil court case to make virginity checks illegal. But this recent verdict – in a military court - found the doctor who was accused of carrying out the check not guilty. The ruling was in effect a denial that the incident happened at all.

Heba Morayef is the Egypt researcher for Human Rights Watch, and was a witness in the case.

HEBA MORAYEF: We know that this happened. We know that this happened to seven women, on March 10th, and it was a long struggle to even get this case referred to court.

KENNEDY: Retired Major General Mohammed Kadry Said, a senior analyst at the Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies, says that he understands that forced virginity testing has been a regular practice.

MOHAMMED KADRY SAID: Especially in the intelligence, you know, circles when they arrest, you know, a feminine and then they just put her morale down. So it goes in this very, I mean, of course, very bad process.

KENNEDY: He says that this kind of procedure is a remnant of the past, and that it will take some time for such abusive practices to be fully reformed.

Despite the verdict against Samira Ibrahim, activists have some reason for optimism about their year-long campaign against the military justice and detention system. The controversial system of military courts has been criticized for its hasty trials, harsh sentences, and lack of legal protections. According to Human Rights groups, more than 12,000 civilians have gone through the process since last February's revolution But the number of civilians being referred to military trials has dropped significantly in recent months.

Mona Seif, the coordinator for the campaign, says increasing public pressure has been a major factor in changing the way the ruling generals speak about military trials.

We have managed to, make the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces ashamed of using these trials, that they are constantly either trying to justify the use of it or are try to avoid using military trials.

Retired Major General Kadry Said says that initially, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, or SCAF, was simply following the letter of military law. But now, public criticism has made it roll back the number of cases that are tried in a military court.

SAID: I think the SCAF, which is, you know, is facing, in the last few months, a lot of examinations by the people. So they want, by any means, to satisfy the public by not applying the law as it is written.

KENNEDY: He points out that the army has freed a large number of civilians convicted in military courts. The ruling generals have issued statements saying they have halted the use of military trials, with the exception of cases covered under the code of military justice.

But Heba Morayef, of Human Rights Watch, says the types of charges covered in this code are numerous and flexible.

MORAYEF: The military, over the last month, has made a number of very misleading statements indicating - implying that they have limited the use of military tribunals. But when you look at the actual text of the actual words of their statements, what is clear is that on the contrary, they are keen on maintaining the discretion to use military tribunals to try civilians when they wish to.

KENNEDY: Morayef says that the code of military justice must be amended. But this is unlikely in the short-term, she says, because the code guarantees the military's own immunity.

For NPR News, I'm Merrit Kennedy in Cairo.

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