And a new policy by the Obama administration aims to tighten oversight over potentially high-risk biological research. The change in policy was announced yesterday and it was in response to experiments on the bird flu virus. That research created mutant viruses that could be dangerous to humans and, critics say, potentially be used as biological weapons. Those experiments got funding from the National Institutes of Health. As NPR's Nell Greenfieldboyce reports, the new oversight system is intended to prevent this kind of controversy from happening again.

NELL GREENFIELDBOYCE, BYLINE: The new policy covers federally funding research - both ongoing work and future proposals. It calls for special reviews of work that involves a list of 15 particularly nasty pathogens and toxins, including bird flu virus. Funding agencies will have to evaluate certain kinds of experiments to see if they pose special risks.

ANTHONY FAUCI: To really upfront ask the questions - should they be done, and if so, under what conditions should they be done?

GREENFIELDBOYCE: Anthony Fauci is director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the NIH. He says if an agency wants to fund an experiment that might yield potentially dangerous information, scientists could be asked to hold back on publishing details. Or, in some cases, the work might need to be classified. Fauci notes that the NIH does not do classified studies.

FAUCI: We would have to refer it to an agency that does classified research, 'cause we don't.

GREENFIELDBOYCE: He says the NIH has already taken a look at the ongoing projects it's funded and believes very few will need more scrutiny under the new policy.

FAUCI: We're not talking about a very large number of studies that are going to get looked at again and might be altered. We are talking about really, really a little bit more than a handful of studies among hundreds of grants.

GREENFIELDBOYCE: And so far he says it doesn't look like even these raise significant concerns. The new policy was welcomed by Richard Ebright. He's a professor of chemistry at Rutgers University who has long called for better control of biological research that could be misused.

RICHARD EBRIGHT: My first reaction was that this is an important step forward. An overdue step, but an important one.

GREENFIELDBOYCE: He said expert panels have recommended setting up an oversight system since 2004. He thinks this policy could prevent another controversy, like the one swirling around bird flu experiments, but only if agencies take real action.

EBRIGHT: If the funding agencies propose only public relations or window dressing as risk mitigation, then we'll have only public relations and window dressing and more of these problems arising.

GREENFIELDBOYCE: Meanwhile, it's still unclear what will happen with the bird flu studies. The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity will wrap up its second meeting on this issue today and will offer advice on whether to publish the full details. Ron Fouchier of Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands is one of the scientists who did the work. Earlier this week he spoke on a live webcast of a science show called "This Week in Virology."

RON FOUCHIER: Regardless of what the U.S. government and Dutch government say, the authors and the journals are going to have the last votes on the publication issue.

GREENFIELDBOYCE: That's because whatever the advisory committee decides today is nonbinding. Nell Greenfieldboyce, NPR News.

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