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ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:

From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Robert Siegel.

AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:

And I'm Audie Cornish. We begin this hour talking about efforts to stop the violence in Syria where shelling and gunfire continue today in several cities. In a few minutes, we'll speak with a top White House adviser on foreign policy about what the U.S. can do to pressure the Syrian government. But first, diplomats are gathering in Turkey for Sunday's meeting of the group called the Friends of Syria. As NPR's Peter Kenyon reports, some diplomats don't expect any quick solution.

PETER KENYON, BYLINE: One reason for the gloomy diplomatic outlook on Syria at the moment is that it's taking far too long in the eyes of some to transform the opposition Syrian National Council from an umbrella group of very disparate factions into a functioning political organization. As SNC members gathered on the Asian side of Istanbul this week, there were vigorous efforts to rebut the primary criticisms of the council, that it's too opaque and undemocratic itself, and that the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood has too powerful a role, raising fears of a Sunni Islamist agenda surfacing later on.

As the brothers laid out a point-by-point explanation of their vision for a pious but tolerant and pluralistic Syria, member Mohammed Riad Al-Shaqfa was at pains to portray the Syrian Muslim brothers as much closer to Tunisia's moderate Islamists and far from the hard-line Salafists of Egypt, Saudi Arabia or Yemen.

MOHAMMED RIAD AL-SHAQFA: (Through Translator) Look, we don't want to impose anything on anyone. If a woman comes to visit Syria and we are in charge, she won't have to wear a veil if she doesn't want to.

KENYON: He also called on the rebel Free Syrian Army to stick to defending civilians, but reports from inside Syria suggest that opposition attacks are growing in number and aggressiveness. Several Syrian army officers have been assassinated in recent days, and opposition Web reports have begun including such killings and other attacks in their daily accounts from the field. Such developments lend all the more urgency to what opposition member Mohammed Sarmini calls opposition unity, not among every faction, but on the top priorities.

MOHAMMED SARMINI: (Through Translator) What's important now is not unifying the entire opposition, but to agree on a single road map that will, one, bring down the regime and, two, set up discussions on Syria's future.

KENYON: For now, Syrian President Bashar Assad seems to be ignoring U.N. envoy Kofi Annan's call for government forces to be the first to implement a cease-fire. Analyst Rami Khouri, at the Issam Fares Public Policy Institute in Beirut, says the government's position seems to be to buy time and hope the conflict shifts to a political process that it can manage without losing power. In his view, that's unlikely.

RAMI KHOURI: I don't think that's realistic at all. I think if they do transform the current confrontation into, say, a political dialogue, one which Kofi Annan's plan wants, this probably will spell the end of the regime through peaceful demonstrations and elections.

KENYON: Khouri says with powerful allies like Iran and Russia happy to provide weapons and political cover for the regime in Damascus, the opposition may continue to face Syria's historical reaction to dissent - a relentless brutality that makes, say, Egypt's response to unrest pale in comparison.

KHOURI: The Syrians play hardball. I mean, you have to remember when Hosni Mubarak was threatened, he sent a bunch of violent camel drivers into Tahrir Square. When Assad was threatened, he sent thousands of tanks against his own cities. You know, the Egyptians play whiffleball, but the Syrians play hardball.

KENYON: As the Friends of Syria meet in hopes of pressuring Damascus to comply with the cease-fire, it won't only be Russia and China that are missing. EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton has a scheduling conflict according to a spokesman. But Turkish media say she's skipping the event because Ankara refused to invite Greek-controlled Cyprus. Peter Kenyon, NPR News, Beirut.

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