STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
A bitter anniversary comes tomorrow. Twenty years ago, in 1992, a war began in Bosnia with the siege of Sarajevo. It became the longest siege of a capital city in modern history. During three and a half years of fighting, 100,000 people were killed and over two million Bosnians fled their homes. Only international intervention stopped the war.
NPR's Sylvia Poggioli covered the war then, and has now returned to a city that remains deeply divided.
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SYLVIA POGGIOLI, BYLINE: Even Sarajevo has its Occupy movement - dozens of tents outside the government building. This protest is a rare example of ethnic unity - angry Muslim, Croat and Serb veterans demanding the government respect its promise to pay them pensions. Darko Ninic is a Croat who fought to defend the city.
DARKO NINIC: (Through translator) The war was another time, we were all much younger, and had to obey our leaders. Now we're all together in this struggle. We must not forget the war but we have to move on.
POGGIOLI: Milovir Savic, a Serb who fired on the city from the surroundings hills, stands next to his former enemies.
MILOVIR SAVIC: (Through translator) There's no winner in this war, and if the politicians continue like this, there's no future for us here.
POGGIOLI: Twenty years ago, Yugoslavia was falling apart. After war in Croatia, ethnic tensions exploded in Bosnia. Serbs - opposing the country's independence - opened fire on a peace demonstration, killing two women. That was the start of the war and of the siege of Sarajevo.
HARIS PASOVIC: We were the first reality show in the modern world.
POGGIOLI: Like most Bosnians, theater director Haris Pasovic is still bitter that Western governments stood by for more than three years before intervening against Serbian forces.
PASOVIC: Viewers around the globe could watch live people in Sarajevo being murdered or starved, people being killed on the street, even people going for miles to collect some water.
POGGIOLI: Sarajevo was inexplicable - a medieval-like siege in late 20th century Europe, its citizens locked in as Serbs fired canons at schools, libraries and hospitals, while snipers took aim at people gathering water or attending funerals. Over 44 months, more than 11,000 people were killed and 50,000 wounded.
For the survivors, the siege remains the defining moment of their lives. And for many who were children, it was not always a nightmare.
YUSUF HADZIC: A lot of people don't believe it, but we as kids, we had a lot of fun.
POGGIOLI: Twenty-eight-year-old Yusuf Hadzic works at a DVD store in Sarajevo's new shopping mall.
HADZIC: I often played in the park with the dogs from the special units, then we stole the dog food and eat that. But it was tasty, really. We had no meat.
POGGIOLI: Today, paradoxically Yusuf feels besieged in a different way - this time by politicians who use ethnic divisions to stay in power.
HADZIC: All of them push their religion in front of them like a shield, but in the background fill up their pockets; that is the worst thing could happen to this country.
POGGIOLI: International watchdogs say Bosnia today has one of the highest government corruption rates in Europe, and its economy is in shambles. Unemployment is over 40 percent and a major source of revenue is remittances from Bosnians abroad. But Bosnia's major problem, analysts say, is division along ethnic lines.
Those divisions are endorsed by the country's constitution and enshrined in the 1995 Dayton peace accord. Srecko Latal, an analyst with the International Crisis Group, says it's politicians who promote mono-ethnic enclaves.
SRECKO LATAL: Radical nationalist ethnic rhetoric has been a proven recipe for winning elections, and many politicians have been winning elections ever since the end of the war in this way.
POGGIOLI: Even education is strictly segregated. Children from different ethnic groups - often in the same building - follow totally separate curricula. Ahmet Alibasic, a professor at Sarajevo's Faculty of Islamic Studies, says the result is that today most Muslim, Croat and Serb children are totally ignorant about each other.
AHMET ALIBASIC: I must admit I am a bit worried because many of the causes of conflict are still there. Given the wrong combinations of conditions and circumstances, they might, you know, produce another conflict.
POGGIOLI: Hopes of restoring Bosnia's pre-war multi-ethnic tapestry have proved elusive. Many Bosnians hope that commemorating the 20th anniversary of the start of the war will revive international attention and stimulate efforts to build a more inclusive society.
Sylvia Poggioli, NPR News, Sarajevo.