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News Corp. is one of the world's most influential media companies, with a reach that extends to five continents. In the U.S., News Corp. outlets include the Wall Street Journal and Fox News. In the U.K., its powerful newspaper arm is at the heart of scandals involving phone-hacking and police bribery.
The driving force behind the company is, of course, Rupert Murdoch, its chairman and CEO. NPR media correspondent David Folkenflik recently visited Murdoch's hometown in Australia. Here, the first of several stories on the roots of the man and his media empire.
DAVID FOLKENFLIK, BYLINE: Ultimately, all roads lead home for Rupert Murdoch. Take last October, when he addressed News Corp. shareholders in Los Angeles.
RUPERT MURDOCH: The story of our company is the stuff of legend: from a small newspaper in Adelaide to a global corporation based in New York, with a market capitalization of about $44 billion.
FOLKENFLIK: Australians view the company's history differently.
GRAEME SAMUEL: I mean, Adelaide is irrelevant to it. It was always strange that the annual meeting used to be held in Adelaide, but I never actually understood why.
FOLKENFLIK: That's Graeme Samuel. He's the former chairman of the powerful Australian agency that regulates antitrust and media issues. I met Samuel in Murdoch's true hometown of Melbourne, a city famed for the Australian Open tennis tournament, for trolley cars, and for street buskers playing the aboriginal instrument the digeridoo.
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FOLKENFLIK: Melbourne is Australia's second-largest city, a melting pot on the country's southeastern coast. Graeme Samuel is now a corporate investment consultant with a commanding view of the city from 30 floors up. And he points out the many beneficiaries of the enormous philanthropy from the Murdochs.
SAMUEL: Moving around a bit further and we get into the parklands, the botanical gardens. You'll see a...
FOLKENFLIK: There's a big children's hospital and also, the major theater houses and arts center downtown. I got a further schooling in the Murdochiana of Melbourne from Stephen Mayne, formerly an editor at Murdoch's two biggest Australian tabloids.
STEPHEN MAYNE: And we're just coming up to the Trinity Presbyterian Church here, on the corner of Riversdale Road and Waterloo Street.
FOLKENFLIK: Murdoch's grandfather Patrick was a Scottish minister who became influential after being posted to this suburb south of Melbourne. Rupert Murdoch's father, Keith Arthur Murdoch, lived in the church manse as a child.
MAYNE: And there was discussions at the time that he may pursue a religious career as well. And he said no, journalism was his thing. And he was lucky enough, at the age of 17 or 18, to get a cadetship - or get his first job working for The Age, which was the broadsheet.
FOLKENFLIK: As a reporter during World War One, Keith Murdoch witnessed the doomed Allied assaults on Gallipoli, and wrote an impassioned letter to the Australian prime minister denouncing the willingness of British commanders to endanger Australian soldiers.
It made him a hero to many. He rose to be the top editor of the Melbourne Herald, and a top executive of his employer's growing corporation. The knighted Sir Keith prospered, and he was able to bring up his children in great comfort. Stephen Mayne took me by Rupert Murdoch's childhood home.
MAYNE: We're now sitting outside 39 Albany Road in Turac, and it is an absolutely magnificent mansion. Near the top of the hill, lots of beautiful old trees and...
FOLKENFLIK: At Sir Keith's death in 1952, a 21-year-old Rupert Murdoch rushed home from Oxford University.
MAYNE: This property was sold to pay off the debts and the estate duties, the taxes that were payable, so that Rupert could inherit the Adelaide News in Adelaide with relatively little debt, a public company. And he could make his way in the world, and try and continue the traditions of his father. And my goodness, hasn't he done that.
FOLKENFLIK: Sometimes soft-spoken but invariably hard-driving, Rupert Murdoch acquired major papers in every Australian state. He bought TV stations, and established the first truly national daily. Murdoch, his relatives and corporate executives declined to be interviewed for this story, but he spoke to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation for a 2001 documentary.
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MURDOCH: I don't know of any son of any prominent media family who hasn't wanted to follow in the footsteps of his forbearers. It's just too great a life.
FOLKENFLIK: My guide around Melbourne, Stephen Mayne, has become a critic of Murdoch and News Corp. He sees present-day parallels in Sir Keith's dealings; for example, his acquisition of a stake in one of his company's profitable papers while serving as a top executive at that same company. By modern lights, that could be considered a conflict of interest.
MAYNE: Because we've seen similar questions asked around the way Rupert Murdoch has run News Corp.,with his own family interests versus the public shareholder interest.
FOLKENFLIK: Murdoch started acquiring British media outlets in the late 1960s, and then expanded into the U.S., ultimately becoming an American citizen. By 2004, he pulled News Corp. from Australian exchanges, and listed it in New York. He typically visits Melbourne once a year to see his mother, now 102, on her farming estate an hour outside the city. And indeed, Graeme Samuel says it is largely Dame Elisabeth's philanthropy that still binds the city to the family.
SAMUEL: For Rupert, I think it's a combination of goodwill but at the same time, that fear that's being created by the sheer omnipresence of the Murdoch family and the Murdoch press.
FOLKENFLIK: Despite his decades-long absence, Murdoch casts a strong shadow - as he showed last fall, when he returned to the country to sack the chairman and CEO of the company's newspaper division there. He took the title of chairman for himself. Rupert Murdoch reminded Australians who runs the show.
David Folkenflik, NPR News.