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Some American veterans returning from overseas end up homeless on American streets. President Obama has vowed to end that problem by the year 2015, and last year, the number of homeless vets on a given night did drop. But tens of thousands remain, and more could be joining them, as more troops come home. NPR's Pam Fessler reports on the effort to get ahead of the problem.

PAM FESSLER, BYLINE: James Brown left the Army in 1979, and for most of the next 32 years, he lived on the streets in and around Los Angeles. You might have seen him: The dirty, disheveled guy trying to keep warm in a cardboard box.

JAMES BROWN: This way.

FESSLER: But today, Brown's a different man. Wearing sunglasses and an athletic outfit, he bounds up the stairs to his new home, a fourth-floor walk-up.

BROWN: Apres vous.

FESSLER: It's a small, sparsely furnished studio.

BROWN: It's kind of stuffy, you know what I mean?

FESSLER: But for Brown, it might as well be a mansion.

BROWN: I got my own lights, refrigerator, a fan.

FESSLER: And what he calls a spectacular view. All I can see out the window is a brick wall, but Brown moves to one side and points to a sliver of sky.

BROWN: From here, this angle, it's incredible. Along the horizon, it's palm trees. They crest the top of this hill. And then just underneath are all these little quaint homes. It's like a quaint village. You'd swear you were in the Swiss Alps.

FESSLER: A far cry from where he used to live. Brown, who's on disability for mental and physical problems, is one of about 30,000 homeless veterans who've been moved into permanent housing in the past three years. It's part of an ambitious campaign by the federal government, local agencies and nonprofits to help men and a growing number of women vets who often are so down and out, they don't know where to turn.

CHRISTINE MARGE: I believe we can absolutely do this.

FESSLER: Christine Marge is with the United Way of Greater Los Angeles, which is overseeing a project to end veterans and chronic homelessness here in L.A. She's optimistic.

MARGE: And that's not to say that there won't be veterans and other individuals who become homeless over time. But we're creating a system that can quickly identify those folks and move them back into housing.

FESSLER: She says they've cut the red tape that often discourages veterans from seeking help. And last year, 2,000 vets were housed here using federal vouchers that also pay for services such as medical care and counseling. She says it even saves money.

MARGE: When someone is sleeping outside, they may be using the emergency room for their health care. They may be cycling in and out of jails and prisons, and that's very costly.

BILL ROSENDAHL: How are you, big guy? Everything cool? Good. Hey, it's so good to see you. You doing OK?

FESSLER: But for all the progress that's being made, there are still lots of vets outside - more than 67,000 nationally. On nearby Venice Beach, the homeless are as much a fixture as the skateboarders and the T-shirt vendors.

L.A. Councilman Bill Rosendahl looks around and is frustrated.

ROSENDAHL: I don't know what our president is thinking. 2015 is just three years away, and we've not made a dent in the homeless issue. And I'm afraid as the wars either wind down or continue, they're going to continue to come out more and more seriously damaged.

FESSLER: He says many of those returning from Afghanistan and Iraq have mental and physical scars that, if left untreated, could eventually lead to homelessness. He says they need more immediate help.

ROSENDAHL: The services have to be connected to that returning veteran from the get-go. And it has to be made simple and supportive, because they're losing their energy, their minds, and then they end up on the street.

FESSLER: In fact, the Obama administration says it is trying to do more to prevent veterans from becoming homeless in the first place. It provided $100 million this year, for everything from counseling to things as simple as giving vets money to repair their cars so they don't lose work. But Rosendahl and other advocates say there are other obstacles to keeping vets off the streets, that it's not easy finding landlords willing to accept federal housing vouchers in an expensive city like L.A. They bemoan the fact that a huge veterans facility in West L.A. remains empty, when so many people need a place to stay.

STEPHEN PECK: It scares me a little bit when I hear people from the government say, you know, we've got, you know, X number of days to end homelessness, and X number of days - I mean, it's, you know, it's simply not realistic.

FESSLER: Stephen Peck runs the United States Veterans Initiative, a nonprofit that helps homeless vets. He appreciates all the new attention, but says permanent supportive housing - the current rage - might not be the answer for everyone, that veterans are different, and some need other incentives to get back on their feet.

PECK: If you got the last homeless guy off the street in June of 2015, July 1st, there would be another homeless guy.

FESSLER: He says it has to be a constant process of reaching out to those who served their country, but might need help for the rest of their lives. Pam Fessler, NPR News.

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