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Today in Your Health, we're going to hear ways to comfort a crying baby. And also, how much more vulnerable children of autism are to the pain of bullying. And let's begin with that story.
A survey by the Interactive Autism Network, which found two-thirds of children with autism spectrum disorders have been bullied. And these children are three times more likely than others to have been bullied in the past month. NPR's Jon Hamilton has this profile of one child who helps explain why the numbers are so high.
JON HAMILTON, BYLINE: The survey found that bullies often pick on kids like Abby Mahoney.
ABBY MAHONEY: I like "Star Wars," "Hunger Games," "Lord of the Rings," and cute animals, especially cats and gerbils.
HAMILTON: Abby's 13 and has Asperger's syndrome. She lives near Baltimore and describes herself as cool, different and a big geek. She says when she gets interested in something like "Star Wars," she gets really, really into it.
MAHONEY: Well, I've memorized nearly everything about "Star Wars" there is to know. And "Clone Wars" episodes - most of them, anyway. I'm still working on the "Clone Wars" thing, but most of them. See what I mean by big geek?
HAMILTON: When Abby says memorized, she means literally memorized. She says when she was eight or nine, she'd go to school dressed like Princess Leia. She was also so hyper that on some days she literally bounced off the classroom walls. All that made her an easy target for one boy.
MAHONEY: Every time I'd walk by he'd call: Police, police, take her back to the insane asylum. The other kids would run in and say: The police are here. We're the police. And then they'd chase me.
HAMILTON: It didn't help that Abby responded by attacking them with an imaginary light saber. For a long time Abby didn't tell her teachers about the bullying. When she did, things got worse. And when she finally stood up to the kids tormenting her, it didn't go well.
MAHONEY: I seem to remember telling the boys, you're mean to me or something like that that really upset them more. And they got really mad at me and they got up and I ran away and they ran after me and that ringleader, he threw a chessboard at my head.
HAMILTON: It missed. But Abby's mom, Patricia Mahoney, says she realized something had to change. Mahoney says Abby's problems at school started long before the bullying. She says her daughter desperately wanted friends. But her unusual behavior and interests made them hard to find.
PATRICIA MAHONEY: I remember she would go up to, you know, 5 year olds on the playground and say, you want to play Celts and Romans? And so she spent most of recess, you know, playing under a bush.
HAMILTON: As Abby got older, her differences stood out more. And when the bullying started, she didn't seem to get what was happening. Mahoney says her daughter's autism made it hard for her to understand what was going on in the minds of the other kids.
MAHONEY: She wouldn't consider them off-limits to try to interact with, because she just wanted friends. And they were doing cool things sometimes. And she would want to be involved. And, you know, for me that's kind of painful. Oh my gosh, why are you going to hang out with these kids who have been so cruel to you?
HAMILTON: So Mahoney pulled Abby out of school. She quit her job and educated her daughter at home for the next two years.
MAHONEY: Home schooling was really great. At the same time, if she can't figure out how to navigate social interactions and strong feelings in the moment and things like that, then that's not really going to help her.
HAMILTON: So now, Abby is in a school for kids with autism. And it's working. Abby has friends and she's been chosen to star in the school's production of the musical "Annie."
Connie Anderson is with the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore and the Interactive Autism Network, the group that did the bullying survey. Anderson says the results show why kids like Abby are so vulnerable.
CONNIE ANDERSON: The aloof children, the ones who kind of didn't really care about interacting and wanted to kind of be left alone, were less likely to be bullied than the children who desperately wanted to interact and were in there trying to interact.
HAMILTON: And Anderson says a few bad experiences can leave these children with lasting scars.
ANDERSON: Bullying can undo all our efforts. I think that's the most devastating thing about it. You know, children on the spectrum can be anxious anyway. This can just put them over the top and undo all the good that everyone's trying to do.
HAMILTON: Anderson says children with autism would have fewer problems if every school had a policy on bullying and enforced it. She says parents should know that if their child has an Individualized Education Program, it can include measures to prevent bullying.
Jon Hamilton, NPR News.