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GUY RAZ, HOST:

From cybersurveillance to airport surveillance now and the issue of racial and religious profiling. Some religious and minority groups say they are unfairly singled out for more extensive screening in the security line. And as NPR's Tasnim Shamma reports now, civil rights groups led by the Sikh Coalition think they have found a solution: in smartphones.

TASNIM SHAMMA, BYLINE: It's called FlyRights. It's a mobile app, and here's how it works. Travelers who suspect they have been profiled take out their phone, tap a finger on the app and answer about a dozen questions. Then they hit submit, and this immediately files an official complaint with the Transportation Security Administration, known as the TSA.

Amardeep Singh is co-founder of the Sikh Coalition. He says the idea for the app came from Sikh entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley who felt they were being stopped unfairly at airports.

AMARDEEP SINGH: They literally said to one of our staff members: There should be an app for that. We thought: Great idea. Let's start working on it.

SHAMMA: Many men wear dastaars or turbans to cover their kesh or uncut hair. Hardayal Singh - no relation to Amardeep - is the director of United Sikhs, a human rights advocacy group. Most Sikh men share the name of Singh, and women use Kaur, spelled K-A-U-R.

Hardayal has a long, black beard and wears a dark olive turban. He says the turban is meant to serve as a symbol of equality and justice. But at airports, he says, turbans lead to extra scrutiny.

HARDAYAL SINGH: You go to the airport, you know that you're going to be pulled aside. You know that your turban is going to be asked to be touched upon. And then, of course, you don't want to take that option. And then, you know, the way the X-rays are going to be flowing in to see if you're a safe traveler or not.

SHAMMA: Hansdeep Singh recently co-founded the International Center for Advocates Against Discrimination with Jaspreet Singh. He explained the screening process at airports for turban-wearing Sikhs. First, there's the metal detector, then an explosive trace detection pat-down. An officer or the passenger touches the turban and swabs it. The paper swab is then analyzed. If there are no traces of explosives, the traveler is free to go. If there are still questions, the passenger could be asked to remove his turban for further inspection, which Hansdeep calls the greatest insult. Lastly, there's the metal hand wand, and in some cases, the advanced imaging technology machine.

HANSDEEP SINGH: Instead of these policies getting better, they've gotten actually more extreme. So we had two levels of screening, now we're at three levels of screening. So there's literally no way, no policy or screening method for us to go through that doesn't literally strip us of our dignity each time.

SHAMMA: At Reagan National Airport in Washington, D.C., TSA spokesman Kawika Riley says there's no religious profiling, just screening for safety.

KAWIKA RILEY: If a passenger is wearing any type of bulky headwear, they may be subject to additional screening. We do not profile based on race, we do not profile based on ethnicity, we do not profile based on religion.

SHAMMA: It's not only Sikhs who face extra scrutiny. Across cultures, there are travelers who wear head wraps or bulky clothing and say they get similar treatment. Riley says the TSA must try to detect ever more sophisticated weapons - plastic explosives for instance - that can't be seen on X-rays. But he says the agency doesn't want to mistreat flyers.

RILEY: We're constantly working to improve our detection technology, our officers' training and TSA's capacity to make the travel experience not just more secure - although that's our focus - but also more convenient for passengers.

SHAMMA: Amardeep of The Sikh Coalition says he hopes the app, which has been tested with the TSA, will encourage more people to file complaints so that there is more accurate data on improper screening. FlyRights will be available for download starting Monday. For NPR News, I'm Tasnim Shamma.

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