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From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish.

MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

I'm Melissa Block.

And we begin this hour with a ballot backlash. This weekend, voters in France and Greece rejected austerity and the candidates who had fought for it. In Germany, Chancellor Angela Merkel finds herself increasingly isolated. Her chief ally in the austerity fight, French President Nicolas Sarkozy, lost his re-election bid and an anti-austerity movement is sweeping across Europe.

We begin our coverage in Berlin where NPR's Eric Westervelt reports that the German chancellor may be isolated, but she's not yet backing down.

ERIC WESTERVELT, BYLINE: Chancellor Merkel made all the right gestures, the obligatory phone call last night congratulating French President-elect Francois Hollande. Today, she vowed the two will work together well and intensively. And she invited Hollande to Berlin after his inauguration and said she'd welcome him with open arms.

But clearly, the French results mark a setback for Merkel. She openly supported Sarkozy. Today in Berlin, she insisted that an E.U. pact signed earlier this year limiting debt and imposing budget cuts across the 17-nation eurozone was not up for amendment or change, as President-elect Hollande would like.

CHANCELLOR ANGELA MERKEL: (Foreign language spoken)

WESTERVELT: We, in Germany, are of the view and so am I personally, that this fiscal pact is not negotiable, she said. It's been negotiated and signed by 25 countries. But we're talking about two sides of the same coin. Progress is only to be achieved by solid finances plus growth.

In Greece, parties that backed the two big E.U. bailouts lost their majority in parliament. Merkel today cautioned Greece to stick to its strict cost-cutting program. And it was bad news for her at home as well. Over the weekend, voters in a northern state ousted a coalition led by Merkel's conservative CDU party in local elections. It's a setback that may hurt her party as it heads into national elections next year.

The backlash in Greece, France and elsewhere is hardly surprising: austerity that is mostly all pain with little prospect of gain has provoked street riots, protests and deep anger. Economist Irwin Collier at Berlin's Free University says European voters have good reason to rebel. Merkel's policy of aggressively pushing for debt-troubled countries to trim their public sector deficits, he says, has proved too rigid.

IRWIN COLLIER: The problem if you do it too fast and too soon, you get into this vicious cycle, where you start losing tax revenue and your deficits start mounting. So, it's actually counterproductive.

WESTERVELT: For the German approach to succeed, Collier argues, debt-burdened countries would have to make these painful structural reforms during a period of growth.

COLLIER: And for that to happen, Germany has to shift from being the stern schoolmaster of fiscal discipline into a locomotive of economic growth.

WESTERVELT: Chancellor Merkel has been using the word growth more and more of late, but there's little sign Germany will fundamentally change its approach to the debt crisis. Merkel's spokesman today said, growth through structural reforms, meaning the current approach, is the best one.

But there's little room for maneuvering. Eight eurozone countries are already in recession and unemployment in March across the zone hit its highest ever at 10.9 percent. Others point out that Merkel is a savvy realist with a pragmatic streak, so she may yet prove open to some kind of growth pact and change course somewhat, says analyst Pieter de Wilde at Berlin's social science research center.

PIETER DE WILDE: She knows she has a very skeptical German public behind her who very strongly believes in austerity, who's very afraid of inflation. But she has shown remarkable talent for political survival and relative willingness to go about that in a pragmatic way. So, I wouldn't be surprised if she manages to pull it off.

WESTERVELT: And many German political elites hope Hollande also shows a pragmatic side in dealing with Berlin. As an editorial in the centrist Sueddeutsche Zeitung put it today about Hollande: Adieu, election campaign, bonjour reality.

Eric Westervelt, NPR News, Berlin.

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