The U.S. is re-focusing its political and military attention on the Pacific. The plan includes increased cooperation with allies, including Australia, where U.S. Marines are training near the northern town of Darwin. The U.S. is interested in using multiple Australian military facilities, and that has upset China. Chinese leaders told the Australian foreign minister, during a visit to Beijing, that the time for Cold War alliances is over.

And as NPR's Anthony Kuhn reports, some Australians agree.

ANTHONY KUHN, BYLINE: At Australia National War Memorial, students watch a dramatization of Australian troops fighting in Vietnam. It's a reminder of how Australian soldiers have fought alongside Americans in every major conflict of the 20th century.

JEFFREY BLEICH: We have no better friend or ally in the world than Australia. And we have no area in the world which is as important or dynamic over the next 50 years as the Asia Pacific.

KUHN: U.S. ambassador to Australia, Jeffrey Bleich, is also at the memorial. He carefully emphasizes that increased defense cooperation between the U.S. and Australia now is not aimed at any particular threat or adversary.

BLEICH: Certainly we will stand with Australia but we're not looking at any sort of imminent conflict. The whole point of working closely together and training together is to accomplish what we've accomplished over the last 70 years, which is maintaining a peaceful region.

KUHN: Bleich downplays reports that the U.S. is considering using Australia's Cocos Islands to launch unmanned drones, which could be used for surveillance over the Indian Ocean and South China Sea. The U.S. and Australia have also downplayed the deployment of U.S. Marines to Darwin last month.

Australian Major General Michael Krause is in charge of implementing cooperation with U.S. forces. He points out that, unlike Japan or South Korea, Australia has not one U.S. military base on its soil.

MICHAEL KRAUSE: There will be no permanent U.S. bases here, unilateral, that are not under Australian control. What we have in Darwin is an Australian base which has marines on it.

KUHN: He also insists that Australia intends to maintain good relations with both its biggest trading partner, China, and its main military ally, the U.S.

KRAUSE: From our point of view, one of the underlying assumptions is that you can have more than one friend and they can be quite different friends, so you don't have to choose. And we aren't choosing.

HUGH WHITE: When they say that, what they really mean is, we don't want to choose.

KUHN: Hugh White, a professor of strategic studies at the Australian National University in Canberra, criticizes the Darwin deployment.

WHITE: We in Australia don't get to choose whether we choose. If either the United States or China says we have to choose, then we have to choose.

KUHN: He argues that by seeking to ramp up military cooperation, the U.S. is trying to make Australia choose to support the U.S. policy of maintaining military primacy in the Western Pacific and strategic hedging against China. That may not be a wise choice for Australia, White says, but it may prove hard to resist.

WHITE: The domination of the Western Pacific by a globally paramount Anglo-Saxon power has always been regarded by us as the necessary and sufficient condition for our security. So, for us to go to the United States and say, please, now, don't dominate Asia, but share power, that's a very hard thing for Australians to say.

KUHN: White and other experts say that China's growing military might is already beginning to limit U.S. ability to project power into waters near the Chinese mainland. White believes that, eventually, the two sides will have to adopt a posture of mutual deterrence and admit that neither side can dominate the region.

Another critic is former Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser. He argues that Washington and Canberra's claims that their actions aren't aimed at China don't match with the facts. He calls on Canberra to engage in more robust and independent diplomacy.

MALCOLM FRASER: Instead of giving the appearance of unquestioning support for any American military venture, we should be advising the United States, you know, you don't need more military forces. Back off. We've got to find a different way to solve these problems.

KUHN: For a historical lesson, Fraser points to Japan's conquest of British colonial outposts, including Singapore and Malaya, in the Second World War. With their far flung empire crumbling, the British were in no position to provide the security on which Australians had come to rely.

Anthony Kuhn, NPR News, Canberra.

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