RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:
And let's go now to a story about what congressional lawmakers say, and more specifically, how they say it. A new analysis is being released today measuring the level of sophistication of congressional speech-making. It finds that over the past several years the average school grade level that members of Congress speak at has fallen by nearly a full grade. In some cases, lawmakers are using wording that is at the level of middle school.
Here's NPR congressional reporter Tamara Keith.
TAMARA KEITH, BYLINE: Every word members of Congress say on the floor of the House or the Senate is documented in the congressional record. An organization called the Sunlight Foundation took the entire congressional record, dating back to the 1990s, and plugged it into a searchable database.
Lee Drutman is a political scientist at Sunlight. He took all those speeches and ran them through an algorithm to determine the grade level of congressional discourse.
LEE DRUTMAN: We just kind of did it for fun and I was kind of shocked when I plotted that data and I saw that, oh my God, there's been a real drop-off in the last several years.
KEITH: In 2005, Congress spoke an 11.5 grade level on the Flesch-Kincaid scale. Now it's 10.6. Congress dropped from being juniors to being sophomores. Flesch-Kincaid equates higher grade levels with longer sentences and words with more syllables. This is just one sentence from the congressman with the highest grade ranking, Dan Lungren, a Republican from California.
REPRESENTATIVE DAN LUNGREN: This Justice Department, in my judgment, based on the experience I've had here in this Congress, 18 years...
KEITH: This one sentence goes on for 62 words.
LUNGREN: ...and 35 or 40 years as a practicing attorney, tells me that this administration has fundamentally failed in its obligation...
KEITH: Lungren's grade level this Congress: 20. On the opposite end of the spectrum, Georgia Republican Rob Woodall registers the second-lowest grade level: 8.01.
REPRESENTATIVE ROB WOODALL: What do they say about socialism, Mr. Speaker? It's a great plan until you run out of other people's money? Guess what? We've run out of other people's money. I just want to show you a chart.
KEITH: That's five sentences, an average of seven and a half words per sentence.
WOODALL: My mother will probably be embarrassed to hear this news, but I'm glad to know I'm not obfuscating our challenges with words that are too complicated.
KEITH: Woodall is part of the large freshman class that came into Congress in 2010, many of them backed by the Tea Party movement. Sunlight's Lee Drutman says this infusion of new members looks to be part of the reason for the overall grade level decline.
DRUTMAN: Particularly among the newest members of Congress. As you move out from the center and towards either end of the political spectrum, the grade level goes down, and that pattern is particularly pronounced on the right.
KEITH: Of the 10 members speaking at the lowest grade level, all but two are freshmen, and every one is a Republican. For the record, though, Drutman isn't passing judgment about whether speaking at a lower grade level is a good thing or a bad thing. South Carolina Republican Mick Mulvaney ranks the very lowest, with a grade level of 7.94.
REPRESENTATIVE MICK MULVANEY: Gosh, I guess I should be disappointed that I'm not using my higher education to better use, but oh well. I hope people don't take it as a substitute for lack of intellect, but small words can be just as powerful as big words sometimes.
KEITH: Mulvaney graduated with honors from Georgetown and went on to get a law degree at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. And get this: His dad was a high school grammar teacher.
MULVANEY: And I was trained to write in a clear and concise fashion, and you didn't use big words if small words would do. Certainly I'm not trying to dumb down the message by any stretch of the imagination.
FRANK LUNTZ: It's not an issue of dumbing it down. It's an issue of cleaning it up.
KEITH: Frank Luntz is a Republican consultant and language guru. He says there was a time when members seemed to use the biggest, most complicated phrases possible and didn't really worry about whether the public could understand them. He says members are no longer just talking to each other. They're talking to the public, through cable TV and YouTube.
LUNTZ: Life has changed. They not only expect but they demand that members of Congress communicate in a way that is more understandable and more meaningful to them.
KEITH: The average reading level of Americans is between eighth and ninth grade. Oh, and in case you were wondering, this story was written at an 8.2 grade level. Tamara Keith, NPR News, the Capitol.