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The unemployment report coming out this Friday will tell us the number of jobs lost or added during May, but it won't tell us much about the quality of the jobs that were created - whether they pay well, for example, or if they're low-skill, hourly wage positions. As NPR's Yuki Noguchi reports, the long-term trend shows there are fewer new jobs that require middle-level skills.
YUKI NOGUCHI, BYLINE: There is still demand for people with complex skills like software engineering, or the ability to read X-rays, and there is demand for jobs that require little skill, like cleaning and waiting tables. But the middle-of-the-job market is hollowing out. Sales and administrative jobs, as well as jobs involving assembly or monitoring, continue to be in short supply. Economists have a term for this phenomenon: labor polarization. Howard Rosen is a research fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics.
HOWARD ROSEN: What's happening is that we're getting jobs at both ends of the spectrum.
NOGUCHI: Rosen says the phenomenon goes back a couple decades. But it's become much more visible in recent years. Companies accelerated the rate they laid off workers in those middle-skill jobs. And since then, in the recovery, firms haven't been adding those jobs back.
ROSEN: We have two things going on. We have more people looking for jobs than we have jobs, and also, there's a shift in the composition of those jobs. So, many of those people who are looking for jobs are taking jobs at lower wages.
NOGUCHI: Take, for example, Sonya Spears. Until two years ago, Spears had a full-time job generating sales leads for a California-based company. When she lost that job, she moved from her studio apartment in Western Massachusetts to a group house close to Boston where she has to share a bathroom and kitchen. Now in her early 50s, Spears says the only job she's gotten so far is part-time, for $10 an hour. When I called her, she says she'd been surfing wanted ads on Craigslist and CareerBuilder - once again, to no avail.
SONYA SPEARS: I feel pretty bad. I never thought I'd end up like this, at my age. 'Cause when I was younger it seemed like only the experienced people got the jobs. But now, they want young kids out of school and they don't want experienced people any more.
NOGUCHI: Do you feel like you've traded down?
NOGUCHI: Spears, who has a college degree in communications, feels stuck. For health reasons, she can't do physical labor or even retail jobs requiring her to be on her feet all day, nor does she have the skills necessary for some of the higher paying work she'd ideally like to get.
SPEARS: I can't afford any other training. I was thinking about maybe going and getting a master's degree. But because I cannot get grants or loans, I can't afford to do that.
NOGUCHI: David Autor is an economics professor at MIT whose research focuses on labor polarization. He says workforce demand often changes when technology shifts.
DAVID AUTOR: Many forms of technological change in the past probably had the effect of eliminating low skilled work and making high skilled work more important. This is a form of technical change that has had the effect of displacing the middle.
NOGUCHI: Faster processing speeds and software means things can be monitored remotely. Software makes it easier for people to digitize and manipulate data. So, for example, at MIT, where Autor works, the school was able to save money by laying off many administrative workers without severely affecting productivity because there's simply less paper to push around. You still need professors and you need janitors, but not the layer of staff in between.
AUTOR: And that's an uncomfortable phenomenon because, you know, we'd like to think of the march of progress as creating more and more good jobs, and fewer and fewer, you know, undesirable jobs. But that's not the era we're living in.
NOGUCHI: Autor says that partly explains why so many people have gotten discouraged and stopped looking for work, or remain unemployed for a very long time.
AUTOR: The problem is that once people, especially older, less educated workers, are out of the labor force for a while, they just become increasingly less likely to return.
NOGUCHI: Sonya Spears says her dream job would be to own her own business.
SPEARS: If I had my way, I'd not have to depend on an employer again, but I'm not in a situation to do that now.
NOGUCHI: She says that's not an option because she can't get a bank loan because the last couple years have destroyed her credit. Yuki Noguchi, NPR News, Washington.