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The presidential candidates are battling over jobs, taxes and foreign policy, and they're battling about more abstract ideas. This summer, we're exploring the American dream and what it means to our culture, our economy and our politics, and how it all plays out on the campaign trail. We'll hear about Mitt Romney and the Republicans on MORNING EDITION tomorrow.
Now, NPR's Scott Horsley reports on President Obama's view of the American Dream.
SCOTT HORSLEY, BYLINE: President Obama was on a campaign-style bus tour last fall, rolling through cotton fields and tobacco farms, when he stopped for a cheeseburger and sweet tea in the town of Reidsville, North Carolina. Shaking hands with a crowd outside the restaurant, Mr. Obama paused to offer some fatherly advice to a college student named Desmond McCowan.
DESMOND MCCOWAN: Basically, he told me, be sure I graduated. Stay in school and be sure I graduated. It's one thing when your parents tell you. But when the president tells, you I'm touched. I'm touched right now.
HORSLEY: Study hard, said the president, whose own mother used to wake him up early to do just that. The idea that hard work and education pays off is one that Mr. Obama often conveys, in words and through his own biography.
PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA: Let's face it, my presence on this stage is pretty unlikely.
HORSLEY: From the moment he burst on the national scene at the 2004 Democratic Convention, Barack Obama has served as a living example of the American dream - proof that in this country, anyone can succeed, even a skinny black kid with a funny name.
OBAMA: I stand here knowing that my story is part of a larger American story, that I owe a debt to all those who came before me, and that in no other country on Earth is my story even possible.
(SOUNDBITE OF CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)
HORSLEY: Mr. Obama was quick to add that his story is not one of solo success. Alongside our famous individualism, he said, there's another ingredient in the American saga, a belief that we're all connected as one people. He made that point again this year in a speech at the University of Michigan.
OBAMA: Everybody here is only here because somebody somewhere down the road decided we're going to think not just about ourselves but about the future. We've got responsibilities, yes, to ourselves, but also to each other.
HORSLEY: This idea of the American dream as a collective enterprise is what sets Democrats apart from Republicans. John Kenneth White is a political scientist and editor of "The American Dream in the 21st Century."
JOHN KENNETH WHITE: If you look at three basic values that underpin the American dream, they really are freedom, individual rights - which are closely tied to that - and equality of opportunity.
HORSLEY: Republicans typically stress freedom, White says, and they tend to see government as a likely impediment. Democrats, like Mr. Obama, focus on opportunity, and they see a vital role for government.
OBAMA: Somebody who has a great idea in selling a great product or service, we want them to get rich. That's great. But we also want to make sure that we, as a society, are investing in that young kid who comes from a poor family who has incredible talent and might be able to get rich as well. And that means we've got to build good schools. And we've got to make sure that that child can go to college.
HORSLEY: Mr. Obama argues that by training workers, building highways and creating a safety net that enables risk-taking, government helps the free market work. Letreace Grisby, who attended an Obama rally in Virginia this month, likes the idea of the American dream as a cooperative effort.
LETREACE GRISBY: I don't believe anyone is self-made. God put us here. Why not teach these - especially these young people, how they can make a better life for themselves, especially if they were not born in the one percent.
HORSLEY: Mr. Obama seems mindful that his own story could have turned out differently, and he's been determined to hold doors open for others. He says doing so is good for the country.
OBAMA: I think the history of the United States, the reason we became an economic superpower is because not always perfectly, not always consistently, but better than any other country on Earth, we were able to give opportunity to everybody. That's what the American dream was all about.
HORSLEY: Mr. Obama says preserving that dream requires a balancing act between self-interest and community. Success is not an entitlement in his book, but neither is it a reward for individual effort alone. Scott Horsley, NPR News, Washington.