DAVID GREENE, HOST:
President Obama and Governor Romney agree that the American dream is out of reach for too many people today. They disagree on how to fix the problem. That the subject we're going to tackle now as part of our summer-long series American Dreams. On yesterday's ALL THINGS CONSIDERED, NPR's Scott Horsley reported on how Democrats view the American dream. And now here's NPR's Ari Shapiro to tell us about the Republican perspective.
ARI SHAPIRO, BYLINE: On the campaign trail, Mitt Romney's definition of the American dream sounds pretty universal.
MITT ROMNEY: If you're willing to take risks and work hard and get education, have the right values, anyone can make a better life. We are the land of opportunity.
SHAPIRO: That's a definition president Obama could get behind. The parties disagree more, over how to make sure the American Dream survives, and what to do when it disappears from places like Elyria, Ohio.
PAM MALCOLM: Well, it used to be a thriving area. It's not thriving any more, because people aren't working.
SHAPIRO: Tens of thousands of manufacturing jobs have left this part of Ohio. But Pam Malcolm says if the government steps in to help, that'll just make people sit back and stop trying. She works as a cashier, she's active in the Tea Party movement, and she says every day she sees the impact of government assistance.
MALCOLM: You know, it's like they have a thousand dollars a month in food stamps. They have their nails done, they have really nice Smartphones, and here I am working my tail end off. I can't buy sushi. I can't buy filet mignon and I can't buy crab legs, and grr. It's just, it's very irritating.
(SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER)
SHAPIRO: In fact, the average person on food stamps in Ohio gets $140 a month, according to Kaiser State Health facts. But even if her statistics are off, Malcolm's strongly-held belief is that government aid removes motivation to pursue the American Dream. That's an idea deeply rooted in conservative ideology.
Lee Edwards of the Heritage foundation explains, using a quote from the 18th century philosopher Edmund Burke.
LEE EDWARDS: He said that: We must depend and look to the little platoons of life. And by that he meant the family, community, church. So we're not just looking to ourselves, but we're looking for what surrounds us.
SHAPIRO: Like many conservatives, Edwards believes the best way to strengthen the American Dream is by applying government assistance sparingly.
EDWARDS: If you look at all the temptations which we have today, with our welfare society, it's so very easy to say, I could only go so far and then I can go no farther.
SHAPIRO: In the conservative view, reinvigorating the American Dream means lowering the floor below which government won't let people fall. It also means raising the ceiling on successful people, says the Romney campaign's policy director Lanhee Chen.
LANHEE CHEN: Unfortunately the kind of tax policy that this president has put forward the last few years, really, sort of, penalizes success rather than incentivizing opportunity. And that is something that threatens the American Dream fundamentally.
SHAPIRO: Mitt Romney says this is the difference between his model of an Opportunity Society and what he describes as President Obama's vision of an Entitlement Society. Both men think the rich should pay higher taxes than the poor. But they differ on how wide the gap should be.
Pollster Michael Dimock of the Pew Research Center says the American people are of two minds on this.
MICHAEL DIMOCK: People don't begrudge people who've gotten ahead by working hard. We've asked that question for a quarter century and you get about 80 percent saying they admire people who get rich by working hard. What they're frustrated with is this sense that the system isn't helping people fairly.
SHAPIRO: Of course the definition of fairness varies too. Conservatives say when the government puts its thumb on the scale, that's interfering with free markets. Liberals say the government has an important role as referee, making sure everyone plays by the same rules.
There is also a huge partisan divide, right now, in people's outlook about the strength of the American Dream, says Dimock.
DIMOCK: With Democrats very optimistic about the country's future - even though they're not as optimistic that every individual has it in their power to get ahead - Republicans believe in that aspect of the American Dream, that hard work will pay off. But they're very skeptical about the way the country is headed as a whole.
SHAPIRO: Dimock says that divide began when Barack Obama took office, with Republicans becoming very downbeat about the direction of the country. So when Mitt Romney says he will turn the country around, those opinion curves about the strength of the American Dream may be part of what he's referring to.
Ari Shapiro, NPR News.
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