RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:
We're going to hear now about a small label that's managed to record some of the most interesting artists around: Adele, reigning queen of the Grammy Awards; Vampire Weekend, a big indie success story; and XX, two young Brits with one of the most buzzed-about bands in the world.
All of these acts are based out of a small house in London. Jacob Ganz has this profile of the tiny but powerful XL Recordings.
JACOB GANZ, BYLINE: Leave aside the music itself for a moment. If you're going to go by XL's example, to make a mark on the music industry you need a strong philosophy, and a willingness to break rules. Actually, no - don't leave aside the music.
RICHARD RUSSELL: The music's got to be great; it's got to be sold as well as possible; and everyone's got to get paid. Those, to me, are the kind of three things.
GANZ: That's Richard Russell, the man who co-founded XL in 1989. And yep, XL's owner has a three-part checklist for success - except he wants nothing to do with parts two and three.
RUSSELL: I think, if I had to be involved in those other things, I would stop doing the job. Because I really don't want to be involved in those sort of things. I want to be involved in music, because that's why I sort of did this in the first place.
GANZ: Russell did this - started XL - so that he could put out 12-inch vinyl singles for British rave DJs.
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "CHARLY")
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: Charly says always tell your mummy before you're going somewhere.
GANZ: But over 20 years, XL has grown into a different animal not just in sound, but in scope. Last year, it put out an album that spawned three chart-topping singles and won six Grammys. It hasn't left the Billboard Top Ten in 67 consecutive weeks.
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "RUMOR HAS IT")
ADELE: (Singing) She, she ain't real. She ain't going to be able to love you like I will. She is a stranger. You and I have history, or don't you remember? Sure, she's got it all but baby, is that really what you want?
GANZ: Adele's "21" is the biggest-selling new album of the last seven years.
EZRA KOENIG: That's crazy. Who would have thought that?
GANZ: That's Ezra Koenig, from the New York band Vampire Weekend. His bandmate Rostam Batmanglij is the one laughing in the background. Vampire Weekend signed with XL in 2007. Three years later, the band's second album hit number one.
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "COUSINS")
KOENIG: (Singing) Me and my cousins and you and your cousins, it's a line that's always running. Me and my cousins and you and your cousins, I can feel it coming.
GANZ: Lead singer Ezra Koenig says XL's British office is the farthest thing you could imagine from a major-label operation.
KOENIG: Their office in London is literally, an old house. So when you walk in, you're literally in this like, cozy house and it's like - there's stuff all over the walls and like, little murals and it's like, very communal. And Richard has this kind of big, very personally decorated office, but people are always like, having meetings in there and like, hanging out on the couches.
GANZ: XL also has an office in the United States. It's run by Kris Chen, a 40-year-old, indie label veteran. With successes like Adele and Vampire Weekend, XL could hire more staff, put out more records. But Chen says there are no plans to do that.
KRIS CHEN: It is a better result to devote the maximum time possible to the fewest number of records. And so I think for 2012, we maybe have five records this year.
GANZ: Chen's New York operation has only three full-time staffers. But as part of Beggars Group, a company that includes three other independent labels, XL can share the workload when it comes to distribution, manufacturing, and promotion of records. But when it came to Adele, XL needed more. The label released her first album, "19," on its own in England. But for the U.S. market, which is much larger, XL signed a distribution deal with Columbia Records - a major label. Kris Chen says there was one reason.
CHEN: Radio is perhaps one of the toughest, toughest worlds to play in, and we have a small radio department. And someone like Columbia simply has more records that work in a commercial radio world.
GANZ: That same philosophy - know your limitations, work with people who can do things you can't, and let them do their job - extends to the records made by XL's musicians, says Vampire Weekend's Rostam Batmanglij.
ROSTAM BATMANGLIJ: Richard is a producer himself. So the idea that he would tell a band what to do, I think he would find that as ridiculous as anyone. He believes in his artists' creativity, and I think that is the secret to XL's success.
GANZ: And that brings us back to Russell's three-part checklist. These days, he spends as much time as he can actually making music. A few years ago, Russell decided he'd like to hear a new Gil Scott-Heron record. So he convinced the musician to go into a studio, where Russell produced Scott-Heron's final album.
Then last summer, Russell recorded an album in the Democratic Republic of Congo with Damon Albarn, of the bands Blur and Gorillaz. Albarn had previously worked with the gospel and soul veteran Bobby Womack, and Russell says the three men decided to go into a studio to see what would happen.
RUSSELL: We were able to sort of create a feeling, and create ideas. And we were writing and recording like that. But while we were doing that, I think we were also hitting on a sound, which was the combination of the live instrumentation with the drum machine.
GANZ: The result was "The Bravest Man In The Universe." The album comes out next week on XL.
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "THE BRAVEST MAN IN THE UNIVERSE")
BOBBY WOMACK: (Signing) I got a story I want to tell. Gather round me. Gather round me, boys and girls.
RUSSELL: The label is an artistic endeavor for me, and often that - often that endeavor is purely to do with creating a platform for other people to be artistic. But the right platform.
GANZ: That includes musicians without as much experience as Womack, or as much mainstream success as Adele or Vampire Weekend. The British electronic producer Jai Paul was signed to XL in 2010, on the strength of one song he posted on his MySpace page. Two years later, he's released just one more song.
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "JASMINE")
GANZ: Both singles attracted the kind of attention online that would make another label drool with anticipation. But Richard Russell isn't worried about Jai Paul's pace.
RUSSELL: Jai is a wizard. And the way he's going about things is - I think - for many, baffling. But it's how he's going about things and as such, it can only be right because it's his way of doing it. He's going about things in the most Jai Paul way you could possibly go about things. And who knows where that will lead.
GANZ: Wherever that happens to be, XL's small army seems likely to be ready for it.
For NPR News, I'm Jacob Ganz.
MONTAGNE: And you can hear Bobby Womack's "The Bravest Man in the Universe" - the whole album - at nprmusic.org.