RACHEL MARTIN, HOST:
And as we just heard, southern farmers are objecting to the Senate's version of the farm bill. NPR's Kathy Lohr traveled to central Georgia to speak with peanut growers there about their concerns.
KATHY LOHR, BYLINE: Southeast of Macon, near Oglethorpe, Georgia, rows of peanuts planted six weeks ago have sprouted. Tiny yellow flowers dot the rich green plants. Donald Chase, his father and grandfather have owned this farm since the 1950s.
DONALD CHASE: Oh, the peanut is an incredible plant. We love growing them.
LOHR: Chase knows there's no support in Congress this time around for direct payments to farmers. Ending those payments is expected to save some five billion dollars a year. But Chase says crop insurance doesn't work for many Southern farmers, including those who plant cotton, rice, peanuts and even the feed corn he grows here.
CHASE: This program favors Midwestern corn and soybean farmers. It doesn't even favor me as corn farmer in Georgia because our county average yields are set so low that I'll never file a claim if we go to an insurance-based program.
LOHR: The price farmers can get is also an issue. Row crops, including corn, are based on the commodity markets, but the price of peanuts is based on what the three major shelling and processing companies will pay. So, Chase says if there are no government price supports, that means more farmers could decide not to plant.
CHASE: There's nothing that sort of evens out the ups and down in the market and it becomes very volatile. And for me, I'm thinking this is getting risky.
LOHR: Chase says his expenses are higher than those in the Midwest because he has to buy special equipment for his crop. He says his cost is about $1,000 dollars an acre, and he plants 450 acres of peanuts.
CHASE: Four hundred and fifty thousand dollars is a big investment to put out at the beginning of every year and hope that something comes from it.
LOHR: Chase says the result of the proposed Senate bill may be wild swings in supply. The downside for consumers is the possibility of higher prices. For example, last year, there was a smaller peanut crop because many farmers planted cotton instead, then there was a drought. As a result, the price of peanut butter increased by about 30 percent. Don Koehler is executive director of the Georgia Peanut Commission.
DON KOEHLER: I think what it means is a major disruption in the economies of rural South Georgia and the rural South from Texas to Virginia.
LOHR: Koehler says farmers here, who produce nearly half of the U.S. peanut crop, need a better program. Not direct payments, but a kind of price support system that he says would help stabilize farmers.
KOEHLER: If you're not going to give anything to peanut farmers in the South, why do the Midwestern corn and soybean guys need anything? Let's just let the fur fly with the hide, just don't have anything. Let's do away with the whole farm bill. Let's just see what happens with nothing because that's what we've got right now - is nothing.
LOHR: But others say even with the $23 billion in cuts over ten years, the new farm bill is still way too expensive. Andrew Roth is with the conservative Club for Growth.
ANDREW ROTH: The current Senate bill does nothing to reform the entire system. It creates the dependency on government that has plagued this whole thing for so long.
LOHR: Roth says the government shouldn't provide subsidies to any group.
ROTH: If there was some sort of reform in the bill that tried to wean the industry off of subsidies we'd be open to that, but there is nothing like that in these bills.
LOHR: But farmers here say they need assistance in times of natural disasters and when crop prices fall. Again, Don Koehler with the Georgia Peanut Commission.
KOEHLER: We know that we've got to take our share of the cuts and so we're not fussing about trying to do that, but we still need a safety net.
LOHR: Georgia peanut farmers say they know they have a lot of work to do to convince politicians in Washington that they need help. They say the Senate hasn't been listening, but they may have a better chance when the House takes up its version of the bill. Kathy Lohr, NPR News, Atlanta.