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This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Melissa Block.

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And I'm Audie Cornish. Today, the Air Force awarded the nation's third highest combat award to Captain Francis Gary Powers. In 1960, Powers was captured by the Soviet Union after his U-2 spy plane was shot down during a surveillance flight. After nearly two years in prison, he was traded for a Soviet spy.

Powers died in 1977 and his family always felt his legacy had been tainted by suspicions that he told the Soviets too much. NPR's Larry Abramson reports.

LARRY ABRAMSON, BYLINE: When an experimental plane crashed on Soviet soil 52 years ago, the U.S. government quickly came up with elaborate cover stories.

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UNIDENTIFIED MAN: The plane Khrushchev reported shot down inside Russian territory presumably is an American single-engine jet, a U-2 reported missing on a flight along the Turkish-Russian border last Sunday. The National Space Agency has been flying these planes - 10 of them - in many parts of the world, studying the upper atmosphere.

ABRAMSON: Of course, it was a CIA surveillance craft, not a NASA research plane. The U.S. assumed that no pilot could survive a crash from a plane that flew at 70,000 feet, but Powers lived. He endured months of interrogation, went through a Soviet show trial, was sentenced to 10 years in prison and served nearly two years before he was traded for a Soviet spy.

But, instead of being celebrated as a hero, Powers came home with a shadow over him.

FRANCIS GARY POWERS, JR.: There were reports that my father had defected.

ABRAMSON: Francis Gary Powers, Jr. has been fighting to restore his father's reputation for many years.

JR.: That he had landed the plane intact, that he had spilled his guts and told the Soviets everything he knew or that he hadn't followed orders and committed suicide.

ABRAMSON: In fact, Gary, Jr. says U-2 pilots like Powers were given a poison pill, but only as an option to avoid torture. That's one punishment the Soviets did not visit upon him.

When Powers came home, some Cold War hawks wrote they wished he'd taken that pill or just kept quiet instead of apologizing to the Soviets in an effort to avoid a firing squad.

When Powers died, there were still a lot of question marks around his story. Today, Air Force Chief of Staff Norton Schwartz tried to clear those up.

NORTON SCHWARTZ: Captain Powers refused all attempts to glean from him sensitive information that would have proven harmful to the defense and the security of the United States.

ABRAMSON: In a ceremony at the Pentagon's Hall of Heroes, Schwartz presented Francis Gary Powers posthumously with a silver star. Actually, he gave it to the Powers' grandchildren, 10-year-old Trey Powers and Lindsay Berry, who's 29.

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ABRAMSON: The rehabilitation process has taken half a century. After he returned home, Captain Powers said he felt he was an embarrassment to the government because his capture exposed U.S. spying activities and upended an important summit meeting. Many said he never should have written "Operation Overflight," a revealing account of his traumatic experience.

Though Powers did share a lot during his trial and in his book, Air Force historian Dick Anderegg says Powers was carefully holding key information back.

DICK ANDEREGG: But, even when he told the story, he didn't say anything about the speed of the airplane, the maneuverability of the airplane, the range, really, of the airplane.

ABRAMSON: U-2s still fly today. At the Pentagon ceremony, U-2 pilots in their green Air Force jumpsuits and Dragon Lady arm patches listened to the story of the man who nearly paid the ultimate price and then fought to have the truth told about his mission.

But his son says Powers knew the full truth could never be told during the Cold War. Gary Powers, Jr. says he's not bitter it took the Air Force so long to give his dad the silver star and he said it's never too late to correct the record.

Larry Abramson, NPR News.

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