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Last week, the Senate passed its version of the multi-billion dollar farm bill. The House has not yet taken it up. We're going to hear now about the impact the bill could have on dairy farmers in California. It's been a shaky time for them financially. Most agree that government price supports for milk aren't working.

But dairy farmers are divided on how to fix them, as we hear from Kathleen Masterson of Capital Public Radio in Sacramento.

KATHLEEN MASTERSON, BYLINE: During tough times, the farm bill allows the government to prop up dairy farmers by buying their milk. But the price the government pays hasn't really changed in three decades. It's way below what it costs farmers to produce a gallon of milk. Over the past few years, feed costs have skyrocketed and many farmers have taken out multiple loans just to stay afloat. That's true for dairyman Case van Steyn, who runs a 1,000-cow dairy about 45 minutes south of Sacramento in California's Central Valley. On a recent hot afternoon, he walks me through the milking parlor where a worker is finishing up the last round of cows.

CASE VAN STEYN: If you listen to the experts, a lot of people say things will improve towards the fall or by early next year, but those kinds of comments have been made before.

MASTERSON: The family has been in the dairy business for 50 years. Van Steyn took over from his father. Back at his house, just across the driveway from the farm, van Steyn says that of California's 1,600 dairies, more than 40 have gone bankrupt in the last few months.

STEYN: Now, we're burning up equity trying to stay in business because you've got to feed the cows and take care of them. You've got to milk them no matter what the economics. You can't just lock the door and say I'll be back in six months.

MASTERSON: That's why van Steyn and his group, Dairy Farmers of America, are backing the proposed dairy supports currently in the Senate version of the farm bill. It basically creates an insurance program. When the cost of feed gets really high in relation to the price of milk, farmers would get a payment. Signing up for the program would be voluntary, yet to get the money, farmers would have to agree to cut back milk production. But the program doesn't work for all California dairymen according to the president of Western United Dairymen. Michael Marsh says the problem is the insurance margin is based on the average feed cost, and Marsh says feed is more expensive if you have to truck it from Iowa or Illinois.

MICHAEL MARSH: Unfortunately, the proposal that is in the dairy title, in the Senate farm bill, severely discriminates against dairy farmers in most parts of the country because most parts of the country rely on imports of feedstuffs for their livestock coming from Midwest.

ANTOINETTE DUARTE: A program like this, I don't believe it's going to work.

MASTERSON: Dairy owner Antoinette Duarte runs a 500-cow dairy with her son just south of Sacramento.

DUARTE: It's another cost to the dairymen, and like I said, what I understand through reading some of the literature that we're paying a premium in if you want to participate, but then who knows if you'll ever be able to reciprocate any of those premiums coming back to you.

MASTERSON: Duarte says she doesn't want to pay for a program where the supports wouldn't kick in frequently enough. Like many dairy farmers, she says her dream was to pass on the dairy to the next generation. Her grandfather had a dairy in the 1920s, which her father and brothers ran up until recently.

DUARTE: They don't see a future. They were having a difficult time, and they felt that instead of hanging on and eating away their equity, they just recently sold their cows and the dairy that my dad worked so very hard for with no fault of their own. It was the economy.

MASTERSON: Duarte says whatever dairy supports end up in the final version of the farm bill, it's too late for some. And it certainly won't help everyone who's still trying to stay in the business of making milk. For NPR News, I'm Kathleen Masterson in Sacramento.

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