LINDA WERTHEIMER, HOST:

As early as Sunday, Japan will re-start the first of two nuclear reactors on the Sea of Japan. The move, encouraged by the country's prime minister, is highly controversial. All 50 of the country's reactors have been offline since May, amid public concern following the Fukushima Daiichi disaster. As Lucy Craft reports from Tokyo, the nuclear power lobby is still pushing forward.

YUKIKO SHIMODA: (Foreign language spoken)

LUCY CRAFT, BYLINE: Enjoying a day in the park with her infant daughter, Tokyo resident Yukiko Shimoda seems like the poster mom for a Greenpeace campaign. The 34-year-old mother is still haunted by memories of last year, when she was hoarding mineral water and wondering whether her unborn child would be affected by radiation from the Fukushima plant explosions.

SHIMODA: (Through translator) Of course I wish we didn't have nuclear reactors anymore.

CRAFT: The trauma of the catastrophe and the sobering reality of its aftermath - much of Fukushima Prefecture may never be inhabitable again - have transformed what was once one of the most enthusiastically pro-nuclear nations on Earth.

Study after study shows a surge in anti-nuclear sentiment since last year. And yet Japan's formidable nuclear industry appears down but not out. Despite living through the world's worst nuclear accident since Chernobyl, Shimoda says she's not ready to say sayonara to nuclear just yet.

SHIMODA: (Through translator) I would prefer that the reactors stayed off. But what choice do we have? The summer will be hot and we'll be using lots of air conditioning. I would rather not have nuclear energy, but I just don't see any other way.

CRAFT: A poll released this month by the Pew Research Center shows 70 percent of respondents want Japan to wean off nuclear energy. That's close to double the rate last year.

When a Sankei-Fuji news survey asked residents if they would support restarting reactors in an energy shortage, and provided safety was assured, more than half said yes.

PRIME MINISTER YOSHIHIKO NODA: (Foreign language spoken)

CRAFT: That sense of anxiety is what Prime Minister Noda was banking on when he made an unusual and impassioned appeal to the nation recently, declaring the resource-poor country had to restart the two Oi reactors in western Japan. Noda put his prestige on the line, even though post-Fukushima safeguards and regulations are still evolving.

(SOUNDBITE OF PROTEST)

CRAFT: While organized, nonviolent but noisy anti-nuclear protests continue, observers like Temple University scholar Jeff Kingston say the hasty restart of the Oi reactors marks the triumphant return of Japan's so-called nuclear village, the powerful nexus of politicians and protected utilities that drove Japan's nuclear energy juggernaut for half a century.

JEFF KINGSTON: The nuclear village has never been out of business. They were biding their time, and we've seen over the last few months several revelations that indicate that they are still extremely influential. So the restart of the Oi reactors, I think, will lead to the restart of many other reactors by year's end. So yes, this is the beginning, and the government really does want to avoid having an entire summer without nuclear energy. They don't want to set a dangerous precedent, showing that Japan can do without.

CRAFT: More than a year after the accident, Japanese citizens and their leaders still can't decide whether to phase out nuclear power, and if so, how. A German-style solution - shutting down all nuclear plants in 10 years - is considered so unfeasible, one ruling party leader branded it mass suicide.

Government advisor and energy expert Hiroshi Takahashi says Japan will probably opt for a compromise - downsizing nuclear share of the energy mix by half, from 30 percent to 15 percent, over the next 20 years.

HIROSHI TAKAHASHI: It seems very realistic because it's not extreme, right? It's in between.

CRAFT: Conspicuously missing from this scenario, Takahashi says, is a nuclear exit plan.

So this is - in English we would say kicking the can down the road. Postponing the difficult decision for someone else to take care of.

TAKAHASHI: Yes, in the scenario, the government would write down that we would reconsider what we should do around the time of 2030. So they would write down that clause in the report.

So that implies that, yes, as you said, it's kind of postponing the final decision.

CRAFT: For most of Japan's modern history, a handful of giant utilities have dominated the energy industry. They have kept the lights on and built one of the most stable, blackout-free systems in the world. But coddling utilities has saddled consumers with exorbitant bills and stymied the development of smart grids and alternative energy. The fight for the hearts and minds of Japanese voters like Yukiko Shimoda has just begun.

For NPR News, this is Lucy Craft in Tokyo.

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