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This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Melissa Block.
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And I'm Audie Cornish. For years in Myanmar, repressive military rulers held power, but another institution carries moral power in the country, also known as Burma - the Buddhist clergy. In 2007, Buddhist monks launched a spiritual strike against the regime, undermining its power. Now, Myanmar's rulers had instituted political reforms, and relations have thawed with countries around the globe.
But for many monks, the strike remains in place. NPR's Anthony Kuhn explains from the city of Yangon.
ANTHONY KUHN, BYLINE: The day before his 37th birthday, Nay Myo Zin buys lunch for a dozen Buddhist monks. It's his way of expressing his gratitude for making it this far in life. With his rugged build and jutting cheekbones, he looks every bit the senior captain in the Burmese army that he was until seven years ago.
At a roadside tea house, Myo Zin explains about his retirement.
NAY MYO ZIN: (Through translation) As an Army officer, my life was comfortable, but the common people were tired and poor. I couldn't accept this situation. As a Buddhist, I believe I must do good deeds and earn merit for future lives. This is what made me leave the army, where we're always made to do bad things.
KUHN: The military and the monkhood are the two most powerful institutions in Myanmar, where 90 percent of the people are Buddhist. For centuries, Burmese kings portrayed themselves as defenders of the faith, but members of Myanmar's former ruling junta, says Nay Myo Zin says, gave alms as a form of propaganda.
ZIN: (Through translation) The generals committed so many crimes against the people, so they really want the monks to absolve their sins. They also want to use Buddhism to gain legitimacy among the people.
(SOUNDBITE OF CHANTING)
KUHN: Back at the monastery, Abbot U Eian Da Ga leads a dozen young monks in maroon robes through their evening prayers. In 2007, the abbot joined other monks in anti-government protests dubbed the Saffron Revolution. He was arrested and jailed.
U EIAN DA GA: (Through translation) While I was in jail, I met some young monks from the Buddhist university. After the Saffron Revolution, the minister of home affairs tried to give food to these monks. The monks fasted and went back to their dormitory. They were all arrested.
KUHN: Outside, crows swoop among groves of bamboo, coconut palms and monuments to eminent monks of the past. When a monk turns his alms bowl upside down and refuses to accept donations, U Eian Da Ga explains, it is an act of political and religious protest. The monk is rejecting the offering as unclean and ill-intentioned and essentially excommunicating the donor.
He says that in 2007, most monks decided to refuse donations from the junta's senior generals and their families or perform religious services for them. That spiritual boycott remains in effect.
GA: (Through translation) Anyone who insults the monks and the monkhood must apologize, directly or through an intermediary. But this has not been done. According to Buddhist law, even if the generals retreat from politics or die, if they don't apologize, then the boycott can't be lifted.
KUHN: Then again, not all monks are in on the boycott. U Zaw Tee Ga is head of another, more lavish monastery, where large photographs of senior military brass making donations to him and fellow clerics are prominently displayed.
U ZAW TEE GA: (Through translation) Yes, some hard-line monks are taking a wait-and-see approach toward the new government or holding out for an apology. But most of them realize that the new government is good. They're changing their minds. They're taking donations and cooperating with the government.
KUHN: In recent weeks, Buddhist monks have joined street protests involving a range of issues from chronic power shortages to clashes between Buddhists and Muslim Rohingya residents in western Myanmar's Rakhine state. It's a reminder that the monks can be quickly mobilized into a potent opposition force and why the government might want to try to buy the monks' favor with lavish donations. Anthony Kuhn, NPR News, Yangon.
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