SCOTT SIMON, HOST:
In Texas, it's still the drought against which all other droughts are measured - the seven-year dry spell of the 1950s. The drought was so devastating that agriculture losses exceeded those of the Dust Bowl years, and so momentous that it kicked off the modern era of water planning in Texas. Indeed, the drought of the '50s changed the state forever. In the first of two reports on drought in Texas, our correspondent John Burnett, who's based in Austin, has this oral history of the time it never rained.
JOHN BURNETT, BYLINE: From 1950 to 1957, the sky dried up and the rain refused to fall. Every day, Texans scanned the pale-blue heavens for rainclouds, but year after year they never came. The ground desiccated and cracked open, and eventually, cattlemen had to sell off their herds. Some moved to town and never went back to the ranch. This is their story, told in the voices of the people of the Edwards Plateau in west-central Texas, the epicenter of what many rural Texans, using a regional variation, still call the drouth.
MORT MERTZ: I'm Mort Mertz. We're at the ranch at Arden, just west of San Angelo. I'm 88 years old and I've been ranching all my adult life. And I can nearly say that anything that can happen has happened to me. I've had hail storms that just killed 300 lambs. I've had lightning kill 60, 70 sheep at one time, and kill my saddle horses and my cows.
BURNETT: Looking at all those natural calamities, how did the drought of the '50s stack up?
MERTZ: Well, it's 100 times worse.
SANDY WHITTLEY: I'm Sandy Whittley with the Texas Sheep and Goat Raisers and I've been executive secretary for 45 years and live in San Angelo, Texas, and was here during the drouth. And, the first year, nah, not too bad, you know. And then a little dry the next year. By about the third year, it was beginning to get really interesting, and then it got really serious, and from then on it was just tough.
MERTZ: My dad kept saying, we have these things. They'll go about 18 months and it'll break. That's where it got everybody off-guard. It didn't break. It just kept on going and it lasted about seven years.
BURNETT: The relentless sun burned off the grass and baked the ground. The federal government helped ranchers with emergency feed supplies, but some of the cattle didn't survive. Eugene "Boob" Kelton is an 80-year-old rancher in Upton County, and the brother of the celebrated Western author Elmer Kelton.
EUGENE BOOB KELTON: A cow'd get down, and they'd be laying there bawling, you know, and those wild hogs would be eating on them. They'd just started eating on her while she was alive. So, I fell out with hogs right there.
BURNETT: Across Texas, children were growing up without ever seeing water run in a creek, or feeling the rain pelt their faces. One of nature's primordial elements was simply absent.
NANCY NUNNS: My name is Nancy Nunns. I live in Junction, Texas. I'm a retired CPA and still active in the family ranching operation. For Christmas in probably 1951, my great-aunt gave me a raincoat. It was bottle green and trimmed in white, buttoned up the front. It was quite a raincoat. And, of course, it just never rained. And I grew and grew and the raincoat didn't. That was the start of the drouth and we just outgrew it before it started to raining.
BURNETT: The people who lived through the drought of the 1950s remember dust storms as bad or worse than those of the Dust Bowl days of the 1930s. They speak of dusters that turned noonday into night, so dark that school teachers led their students outside hand in hand, so they wouldn't get lost, and so powerful that the blowing grit abraded the paint clean off of license plates on cars unfortunate enough to drive through them.
John Schwartz Sr. is 74, and still raises cotton and cattle in Tom Green County near San Angelo. He remembers plowing in 1955 when a dust storm suddenly engulfed him.
JOHN SCHWARTZ SR.: And I was to the backside of the field and when I turned around and looked to the north I saw it coming and I knew I couldn't get home, so I just got off the tractor and lay down in the furrow that I'd just made. And I'll never forget it. I had to put my hat over my head to breathe. It was that bad. And at that time, we had chickens and pigeons and guineas and turkeys and all of them were dead. They had to open their mouth to breathe and the dirt stuck in their mouth and they all suffocated.
BURNETT: In 1957, the seventh year of the drouth, the rains finally returned. As it happened, the drought broke immediately after President Dwight Eisenhower flew into San Angelo in late January on a national drought inspection tour. They say San Angelo has been voting Republican ever since.
Again, Sandy Whittley...
WHITTLEY: There were people standing outside and it just rained and rained and rained and rained, and everybody was dancing around in our neighborhood in the rain. But we still didn't think the drouth was broken because you know the people who lived around me were all in ranching. And they're always looking for the next rain. They can get a 12-inch rain, you know, and they say, yeah, but we sure do need another one.
BURNETT: And the rains wouldn't stop. What started in February kept up through the spring and into the summer. Every major river in Texas flooded, washing out bridges and sweeping away houses. Damages were estimated at $120 million. The weather had gone from one extreme to the other.
But by the time the land turned green again, Texas had changed irreversibly. People had begun to leave the ranch for good. The drought showed that it was just too hard to make a living growing grass and raising cattle - if that's all you did.
CHARLES HAGOOD: My name's Charles Hagood. I'm a banker and a rancher in Junction, Texas. A phrase that came out of the '50s for me as I grew up then in Junction and went into the banking business, I would visit with men that I'd always known as carpenters, painters, merchants, and in visiting with them in deeper detail I'd find out that they were ranchers until the drouth.
So, just like many people - my daddy - the drouth drove us to town. And that's a phrase that I think happened all over West Texas. It drove people to town.
BURNETT: Rural Texas never fully recovered. Between 1950 and 1960, the state lost nearly 100,000 farms and ranches. And the rural population that had made up more than a third of the state dwindled to just a quarter of the population. After the drought, water planners doubled the number of reservoirs in Texas and all of these storage lakes served the state's water needs well.
Until the drought of 2011. Today, Texas faces the same challenge it did in 1957: where to find more water. John Burnett, NPR News, Austin.
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SIMON: You can go to npr.org to see the faces of the survivors of the 1950s Texas drought. And tune in tomorrow on WEEKEND EDITION SUNDAY with David Green for the second part of our series: The Drought of 2011 and the Fight Over What Water There Is.