MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Melissa Block.
ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
I'm Robert Siegel. And we begin the hour with immigration. Headlines the last few weeks have been full of big developments. First, President Obama announced that the government would not deport most young people who were brought here illegally as children. Then, the Supreme Court struck down much of Arizona's immigration enforcement law, known as SB 1070, only to allow the most controversial part to stand.
That's the part requiring police to check the immigration status of people they've stopped or arrested.
BLOCK: And next week, one of the most polarizing figures in immigration enforcement heads to court. Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio faces a federal lawsuit. He's accused of racial profiling. Our co-host Audie Cornish is in Arizona all week talking to people about how all these developments are affecting grassroots politics. She reports today on the Latino community.
AUDIE CORNISH, BYLINE: Four years Maricopa County has been ground zero in the debate over immigration. On one hand, a growing Latino population, on the other, a publicity-savvy sheriff in Joe Arpaio, who's made a name for himself strictly enforcing, some say overstepping, immigration laws. In the aftermath of the Supreme Court's ruling, Latino immigration activists are as busy as ever trying to transform the fear and frustration of Latino families into actual voting power.
On this evening, more than 100 people fill the cafeteria of Carl Hayden High School in west Phoenix. They're here for a forum on SB 1070 organized by the group Somos America, we are America in English. It's one of several they've held for undocumented people since the Supreme Court ruled two and a half weeks ago. Audience members dash off questions on white note cards for a panel that includes immigration attorneys and a representative from the Mexican consulate.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: (Speaking foreign language)
CORNISH: The moderator reads the first question. If I'm detained in my car and I don't have a driver's license, what can I show? Another asks, if I go walking, can a policeman stop me and ask me for my immigration status? The Q&A goes on for more than an hour. No one leaves the room. At the end of the evening, Somos America's president, Daniel Rodriguez, takes to the podium.
DANIEL RODRIGUEZ: (Speaking foreign language)
CORNISH: Raise your hand, he says, if you know someone who's not here but needs this information. Raise your hand if you know someone who's been deported. Raise your hand if you know someone who has the power to vote. Across the room, hands shoot up with each question.
RODRIGUEZ: Every question, almost everyone raised their hand and that just goes to show you that there's a lot of people that know the pain and the hurt of being deported or having to know someone that was deported.
CORNISH: And so, Rodriguez tells this crowd of mostly ineligible voters, they need to use that pain and turn it into power, by tapping friends and family who can vote. The irony is Rodriguez himself is undocumented. His mother brought him from Mexico to the U.S. illegally when he was a child. He calls himself a dreamer. He's college-educated, but has fallen short of the law degree he aspired to, thwarted by a lack of financial aid.
President Obama's plan to defer action on deporting young illegal immigrants applies to Rodriguez, but he still worries about his future. When we sit down to chat at the coffee shop he uses as his makeshift office, he acknowledges that mobilizing this community is not an easy task. It's not like four years ago, Rodriguez says, when people seemed fired up about national politics.
RODRIGUEZ: Before, I remember in 2008 when President Obama was running for office, the historical importance of this presidency mobilized a lot of people of color, like Latinos, to come out there and vote. And I was out there getting people registered to vote because we believed that change was going to happen, and that it was going to happen immediately. But now, four years after he was elected, and we saw that immigration reform did not pass, we saw record numbers of deportations.
We saw programs like (unintelligible) communities and 287-G tear apart our communities and our families. Not a lot of Latinos are very enthusiastic this time to come out and vote. I think one of the ways that we're trying to combat that is by saying, you have two reasons to come out there and vote. One is to stop SB 1070 and laws like it and, two, the president already took a stance. The president already gave the deferred action to people that would qualify traditionally under the DREAM Act.
And if we want to move forward, we need to elect a president that supports that.
CORNISH: When this came out, how did you feel about it? Because a lot of people looked at it as being just total political shenanigans.
RODRIGUEZ: One of the first questions I was asked was, well, how do you feel because you know that this is just a political move or do you believe that this is a political move by the president? And the answer is, yes, of course, it is. The difference between what we're seeing now and what would've happened, you know, three or four years ago, is that now it's a political move by the president that he needs to make in order to win reelection because of the growing power of Latino voters.
CORNISH: So you don't see it as sort of falling short of the political goal? You think it's a result of actual power by particularly Latino activists?
RODRIGUEZ: It's definitely progress. Is it what we want? No. We want this. We want the DREAM Act. We want comprehensive immigration reform that deals with this issue in the long term. But this is definitely a positive step.
CORNISH: What's it like for you to be making this argument to people when your future is at stake and you can't vote?
RODRIGUEZ: As an undocumented person, if I had the power to vote, I would do so every time I could. And to see people that have that privilege and not take it and because they don't take it, we have people elected that create laws that hurt me, that hurt my family, that hurt our communities, it can get frustrating. I have been here since I was 7 years old and I'm 26 now and I have grown up here and I am practically an American without papers.
And because of that, I don't have the power to vote and so the best thing that I can do now is organize those that can and make them vote for me.
CORNISH: True to his word, Daniel Rodriguez heads out in 111 degree heat to canvas to the west Phoenix neighborhood where he grew up. His partner today is fellow activist Maxima Guerrero(ph) of the group Promise Arizona(ph).
MAXIMA GUERRERO: Hi, how are you?
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #1: Good (unintelligible).
CORNISH: The shades are drawn on every house. The few people who answer open their doors only part way or peer at them through grated screens. Their goal is to register 40,000 voters in Maricopa County, but today, they're not having much luck.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: (Speaking foreign language)
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #1: (Speaking foreign language)
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: (Speaking foreign language)
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #1: (Speaking foreign language)
CORNISH: Most of the people they encounter are ineligible to vote - one is a resident but not a citizen. Others may be here illegally. One is a felon still on probation. Finally, Jacqueline Duare(ph) comes to the door.
JACQUELINE DUARTE: Buenos dias. Hi.
CORNISH: She's 19 and actually already registered to vote. She's not really following the national election, at least not yet. But ask her about immigration and it's a different story.
DUARTE: People are leaving. They can't fake papers. I know people that have been here for, like, 20 years and they still can't fix anything. So I don't know, we just need change or something.
CORNISH: Those are concerns that Arizona State University political science professor, Rodolfo Espino, says are reverberating through Latino communities everywhere. Like all voters, Latinos care about the economy and unemployment, but...
RODOLFO ESPINO: In the aftermath of the signing of SB 1070, what was one of the top concerns for Latino voters? Immigration. After the recent Supreme Court decision that allowed the show-me-your-papers provision of SB 1070 to proceed, what was the top concern of Latino voters? It was immigration and the need for comprehensive immigration reform. Now, you let some of those feelings cool over time, then the economy and unemployment will rise up.
But all it takes, again, is a candidate or a news event to trigger that saliency for Latino voters and then immigration is being talked about again.
CORNISH: We've heard so much over the years about the potential for Latino voting power; that there's this great untapped number of people, if only they would register and if only they would turn out to the polls. What's different this time around?
ESPINO: Right, there's this term that the Latinos are the sleeping giant of American politics. And this is something that you can trace back to the 1970s. And this sleeping giant has done nothing more than just roll over in its sleep, maybe snore once in a while. For many decades, the reason the sleeping giant has never been heard of in presidential politics is because Latino voters have been concentrated in states that really don't matter.
Texas, California, these are states that are always going to go Republican or always going to go Democrat. And so, a candidate would not spend resources or waste time courting Latino votes in those states. But now, you're starting to see these battleground states where the Latino population has increased: Colorado, Nevada, Virginia, North Carolina.
And that is something that, you know, a lot of Latino activists are now using to get their voice heard. Now they can go to politicians at the national level and say, hey, if you want to win national office you have to listen to what we're asking for. And now I think we're starting to see that.
CORNISH: Rodolfo Espino, politics professor at Arizona State University.
Tomorrow, our visit to Arizona continues. We sit down with conservative voters in the state about how this issue and others have changed the landscape for them.
In Phoenix, I'm Audie Cornish.
NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by a contractor for NPR, and accuracy and availability may vary. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Please be aware that the authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio.