STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:

Let's come home again and back into American history. More than a century after leaving office, President Theodore Roosevelt remains one of the most famous conservationists in American history. He was the man who created many of our national parks. As a younger man, Roosevelt bought a ranch in North Dakota, and his experiences there profoundly shaped his life.

But the landscape around Roosevelt's ranch is now being shaped by a huge economic change: the spread of the oil and gas industry. Critics contend that visible, noisy wells and a proposed bridge could destroy the same feeling of wilderness that made such a lasting impression on Roosevelt. John McChesney has more.

JOHN MCCHESNEY, BYLINE: Theodore Roosevelt first came to the western North Dakota in 1883 to shoot one of the few remaining buffalo. He got his trophy, but he also fell in love with the landscape and cattle ranching. He came back in 1884 and rode 30 miles up the Little Missouri River from the nearest town and found an isolated site on the river bank that suited him.

It's still a 30-mile drive on a dirt road to that spot where he built a big log cabin he called the Elkhorn Ranch. My guide is Roosevelt National Park Superintendent Valerie Naylor.

VALERIE NAYLOR: And then later, when he went back home in February of 1884, his wife died two days after giving birth to their child. And his mother died in the same house, on the same day. And he was devastated. So later in the year, he came out here to mourn, and really to leave his life in New York behind and to become a cattle rancher in Dakota Territory.

MCCHESNEY: The Elkhorn Ranch is in the North Dakota Badlands, which are, in fact, beautiful. The area is crisscrossed with ravines, called coulees, meadows at bottom, sides tree-lined, bordered by gray and red walls, and fantastical formations fracture the horizon.

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MCCHESNEY: Naylor shows me the old hand dug well and the ranch house's massive foundation stones cut from granite, but that's all that's left today.

NAYLOR: That is one thing that's so special about the Elkhorn Ranch because we don't have anything that's reconstructed here - we just have a site and it's the way that it was for the most part when Roosevelt first found it in summer of 1884.

MCCHESNEY: Massive cottonwoods, some of them probably here when Roosevelt was, their leaves quaking in the wind, line the Little Missouri, winding like a brown snake through the gray cliffs.

NAYLOR: And you can see and hear things that many people have never seen and heard - that is a landscape without any development and all natural sounds, birds, wind in the cottonwood trees.

MCCHESNEY: When he wasn't working with cattle, Roosevelt sat on the cabin's broad veranda, a place for recovery, reverie, and reflection about the future of the West.

DOUGLAS BRINKLEY: And it's a place of extreme solitude, and historical sanctity, a place where Theodore Roosevelt generated his ideas for his crusade to save wild and special places in the United States.

MCCHESNEY: Historian Douglas Brinkley is the author of "Wilderness Warrior," a history of Roosevelt's conservationist accomplishments.

BRINKLEY: Theodore Roosevelt, as president, saved over 234 million acres of wild America. There's been no president that's come close to what Theodore Roosevelt did in the environmental realm, and that was over a hundred years ago.

MCCHESNEY: Park superintendent Valery Naylor fears what the oil boom will bring.

NAYLOR: There are oil wells that are near the park that we could hear or see if they are not developed properly. And there's also a proposal for a bridge that could cross the river somewhere near the Elkhorn, bringing the sounds and sights of industrial traffic nearer to this special place.

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JIM ARTHAUD: We know damn well where that bridge belongs. On Federal ground about three miles north.

MCCHESNEY: Jim Arthaud is chairman of the Billings County Commission and the owner of a trucking company. He says that bridge will be out of earshot and eyesight of the ranch. But studies of those effects have not been completed. It's estimated that at least a thousand trucks a day will cross that bridge. But Arthaud says tourists would use it too.

ARTHAUD: The whole public would be able to use that place, not just the elitist environmentalists. That lousy 50, whatever how many acres it is, 200 acres or whatever, where Teddy sat there and rested his head and found himself.

MCCHESNEY: Recently, the owner of gravel mine rights just across the river from the ranch has agreed to negotiate with the Forest Service about possibly relocating. But Arthaud says even if that happens, it won't set a precedent for the ranch region's future.

ARTHAUD: That Elkhorn Ranch site is surrounded by people that own mineral rights, and it's going to get developed.

MCCHESNEY: So now there's pressure on President Obama to declare the surrounding area a national monument, an executive order tool often used by Roosevelt himself and more recently by Bill Clinton.

For NPR News, I'm John McChesney.

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