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Along with insisting he was not running Bain Capital when it outsourced American jobs, Mitt Romney also says he can do better than the president at finding jobs for those who are unemployed. One way Romney says he'll do that is by bringing back something called personal re-employment accounts. The accounts came up in 2004, when the Bush administration conducted a pilot program. It said it would give laid-off workers more control over the retraining process.

NPR's Jim Zarroli explores how well that program worked.

JIM ZARROLI, BYLINE: When people lose their jobs, one of the first places they turn to is their state unemployment office. There, they can sign up for unemployment benefits, and often they can enroll in some kind of retraining classes, as well.

But in 2004, the Bush administration conducted an experiment, essentially to begin privatizing a small part of the federal retraining program. Stephen Wandner is a former senior economist at the Labor Department.

STEPHEN WANDNER: The justification was that you would better manage yourself than if people in the public sector were giving you guidance about training and re-employment services. And you would have to purchase them yourself.

ZARROLI: The program worked this way: unemployed workers were given an account containing $3,000 to get back on their feet. They could use the money to pay for job training, or just to help them in the job search. For instance, it could pay for travel to job interviews or printing up resumes.

JOHN MCALLISTER: It was, you know, entirely theirs. There was no restrictions on it, whatsoever.

ZARROLI: John McAllister is chief deputy director of the Labor Department in Idaho, one of the states that participated in the program. McAllister says if people got jobs right away, they were free to take the money as a bonus and spend it any way they wanted. McAllister says he thought the prospect of getting a bonus would encourage people to look for work more aggressively. Instead, he says, they mostly used the money for what are called supportive services - things that made it possible for them to hold down jobs, like day care or new work clothes or car repairs. McAllister says people didn't really need encouragement to look for work.

MCALLISTER: I think we misjudged the population we were dealing with. They had difficulties in even getting to a job, you know. So, they had to solve that before they could get the bonus. Well, how do you - you know, we got the cart before the horse, I guess, is one way to put it.

ZARROLI: After the program was over, it was never extended, and an independent report issued a few years later concluded it was not a big success. Now, former Governor Romney has talked about reviving the program if he's elected, though he hasn't provided a lot of details about what he would do differently. And the campaign didn't respond to requests for comment on that subject. Ross Eisenbrey of the Economic Policy Institute says if personal re-employment accounts are ever to work, the government has to be realistic about the cost. He says $3,000 simply isn't enough to retrain most laid-off workers.

ROSS EISENBREY: If people are unemployed because their skills are outmoded and they're not going to find the kind of work that they've done in the past, then they need new skills. And that can't be done on the cheap.

ZARROLI: Stephen Wandner agrees. Wandner, who's now with the Urban Institute, says it's hard to get a lot of unemployed people interested in job retraining programs. He says most unemployed people simply want to find work as soon as possible. They have financial obligations, and he says it's probably more cost-effective for the government to assist them by, say, pointing out existing job openings or teaching them how to write a resume.

WANDNER: If you give an individual job search assistance and he goes back to work, you pay out less unemployment insurance, and the government receives more taxes such that job search assistance actually pays for itself.

ZARROLI: But even with government help, finding work may not be easy, especially at a time like this, and many people will have to reinvent themselves. The challenge is finding a way to help them do that and get them back to work as soon as possible. Jim Zarroli, NPR News, New York.

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