STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
We're going now to Florida, actually a little off the coast of Florida, where half a dozen scientists are at work 60 feet under the surface of the sea. They're a few miles off the Florida Keys, living and working this week at Aquarius Reef Base. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration facility is the last undersea research laboratory in the world. The U.S. built it 25 years ago. It's hosted astronauts training for weightless missions in space. It's also hosted marine biologists studying endangered coral reefs.
Now, as Greg Allen reports from Miami, the base itself is endangered.
GREG ALLEN, BYLINE: Among marine researchers there are few people more distinguished or respected than Sylvia Earle. Former chief scientist for NOAA, now explorer-in-residence at National Geographic, she's no stranger to what are called saturation dives. Those are dives where people spend days or weeks underwater.
This dive, Earle says, marks an important scientific anniversary. It's been 50 years since saturation diving was first pioneered by underwater explorers Ed Link and Jacques Cousteau.
DR. SYLVIA EARLE: This is a historic event. And I was invited, I didn't knock on the door. They knocked on my door and I said OK.
ALLEN: In 1970, Earle led the first team of women to conduct a saturation dive - a two-week stay in an undersea lab off the Virgin Islands. She is now 76 years old, and this week is marking her tenth extended stay underwater. Last week, at Aquarius Reef's training facility in Key Largo, Earle said she's disappointed that today saturation diving, and undersea research facilities that make it possible, are still uncommon. For marine researchers, she says, it's all about what she calls the gift of time.
EARLE: This difference in perspective that you get when you don't have to bounce in and out. You have the ability to stay for hours and hours and watch that fish doing its thing, or conduct an experiment without constantly looking at your watch and saying, oh, I've got three minutes left, I've got to go.
ALLEN: Aquarius Reef Base is owned by the federal government, but run by researchers from the University of North Carolina, Wilmington. The base is an 85-ton cylindrical steel chamber with windows, viewports they're called, and a moon pool entryway where divers plunge in and out of the pressurized structure. There are bunks, a galley area, and room, director Tom Potts says, for six people.
TOM POTTS: Typically, our divers stay 10 days and make excursions out on the reef for about nine hours down to 95 feet, so we get about, geez, about 10 times the productivity over diving from the surface.
DOROTHY METCALF-LINDENBURGER: I love being out here in the water. I just...
ALLEN: Last month, the team of NASA astronauts led by Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger spent 11 days at Aquarius Reef training underwater in conditions that simulate the near-zero gravity of an asteroid. It was NASA's 16th mission at Aquarius Reef.
METCALF-LINDENBURGER: Usually we're so focused when we're doing our work outside that we don't get to really appreciate the fish around us. But the fish out here this morning are just super-interesting.
ALLEN: At one time or another, there have been about 50 undersea research bases like Aquarius Reef around the world. Today it's the last one remaining devoted to scientific research and its days may be numbered. After some years of declining budgets, the Obama administration eliminated funding for the base, leaving its staff with just two options - either close up shop or find their own money. That's part of this week's mission - outreach and education aimed at helping save Aquarius Reef.
MARK PATTERSON: Thanks, everybody, for joining us.
ALLEN: Yesterday, sitting in his shorts and T-shirt inside the undersea research base, lead researcher Mark Patterson, a marine science professor at William and Mary, took part in a live online webchat.
PATTERSON: The whole point of the habitat is actually not to be inside. So we're chafing at the bit to get outside into the water and start doing our science.
ALLEN: Patterson has conducted several missions over the years at Aquarius Reef. Last week, while training in Key Largo, he said it's one of the world's few underwater ecological observatories. It's a place, he said, where scientists are able to conduct measurements and experiments using delicate instruments, something not possible on a two-hour dive.
PATTERSON: Some of the things that I've used Aquarius for through the years have involved, you know, some very careful setups that took hours to days to get the experiment going just right, and the neat thing was that the corals or the sponges that we were making measurements on, they're still in nature.
ALLEN: Sylvia Earle says the development of sophisticated robots and remote-operated vehicles has done much for ocean exploration. But interest in robotic technology, she says, shouldn't come at the expense of manned undersea research.
EARLE: You can't surprise a machine, but you certainly can surprise a human being and a human being can react with a body of knowledge. That's the joy of exploration. If you knew what you were going to find, you wouldn't have to go. But it's the unexpected that you need to prepare for, which is what humans do.
ALLEN: In Key Largo, an independent foundation has started to raise money to fund the research base's $3 million annual budget so that this, Aquarius Reef's 117th mission, won't be its last. Greg Allen, NPR News, Miami.
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