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The big question hanging over the International AIDS Conference here in Washington this week is whether all 34 million people in the world with HIV can get antiviral treatment. That's what's being called for in guidelines released at the meeting.

The guidelines say people with HIV should begin the treatment as soon as they test positive for the virus. New research shows that's better for their long-term health, and it will help end the pandemic, because people in treatment are less likely to infect others. NPR's Richard Knox reports on ideas emerging from the conference on how to pay for all this.

RICHARD KNOX, BYLINE: People at this meeting have been thinking and talking about the question all week, so I asked some of them if they everybody with HIV could possibly get antiviral treatment and who would pay for it.

Martine Collumbien works at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

MARTINE COLLUMBIEN: Who should pay for it? The rich countries, probably. But we know in this current climate, that that is not going to happen.

KNOX: Henry Luyombya of Toronto is also doubtful.

HENRY LUYOMBYA: That's a goal that is a little bit ambitious.

KNOX: But Dr. Batsirai Makunike, a doctor from Zimbabwe, is optimistic.

DR. BATSIRAI MAKUNIKE: It has to happen. I think we can.

KNOX: One plenary session speaker is convinced it can be done because the economies of many of the world's poorest countries are growing.

DR. BERNHARD SCHWARTLANDER: Friends, when it comes to funding the future response to AIDS, I have hope. Let us not accept the notion that we cannot find the relatively humble resources to pay for the basic services that mean life for those in greatest need. The world overall is getting richer. We have to make it fairer.

KNOX: That's Dr. Bernhard Schwartlander, a UNAIDS, a United Nations agency. He threw out a number of possible ways to raise the money - a tax on shipping and aviation fuel could raise $64 billion, a levy on financial transactions - some call it a Robin Hood tax - could raise $150 billion. Schwartlander also proposes using the fines levied on big pharmaceutical companies for their marketing practices.

SCHWARTLANDER: A few weeks ago, a single multinational company paid $3 billion in fines. Three billion dollars could easily pay for a year of drugs for all those in treatment today.

KNOX: Another conference speaker, Dr. Andrew Hill of Liverpool University in England, makes a strong pitch for the same kind of taxes that many U.S. states already impose on alcohol and tobacco. Hill says money collected this way could solve a dire problem many countries will face, as the U.S. and other wealthy nations pull back on AIDS funding. The tax could be as little as 1.5 cents on a bottle of beer and 10 cents on a pack of cigarettes.

DR. ANDREW HILL: The money collected would be enough to achieve universal access to HIV treatment in 10 of the worst-afflicted countries in the world - Russia, China, India, Brazil, Vietnam, Thailand, Ukraine - there are other examples. So it could go a long way. And it's actually a very small increase on tax.

KNOX: And in many countries with big HIV problems, there's a lot of room to raise alcohol and tobacco taxes.

HILL: The taxes on cigarettes and alcohol in Africa and Asia are very low compared to Europe and North America.

KNOX: And, Hill says, these taxes are easier to collect than many.

HILL: It's a very powerful way of collecting money, a very simple way of collecting money, because you only need to collect it from a small number of tobacco producers and breweries at the point that cigarettes and alcohol leave the factory. And the sheer numbers involved, you could collect billions.

KNOX: Still, many say the enormity of the task might require a combination of different and creative funding mechanisms. The difficulty is that many of these taxes would need to be enacted country by country. That would take a lot of persuading. But Schwartlander, the UNAIDS official, says it's actually more feasible to do it that way than to forge a global agreement on new taxes.

Richard Knox, NPR News, Washington.

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