We just heard an Ari story from one Pennsylvania voter who said he likes Paul Ryan more than Mitt Romney because, in his words, I'm a Catholic. When Romney picked Ryan, Catholics actually passed a milestone. For the first time in history, both vice presidential candidates are Catholic. As NPR's Barbara Bradley Hagerty reports, Congressman Ryan and Vice President Joe Biden may share the same faith, but they express it in very different ways.

BARBARA BRADLEY HAGERTY, BYLINE: Both Biden and Ryan say their Catholicism shapes their world views and their politics. Yet, when it comes to things like abortion, taxes and Medicaid, they are miles apart. How can that be? Well, Catholicism is complicated, says Deal Hudson, a Catholic activist for the Republican Party. It can't be pigeonholed as conservative or liberal. He says increasingly the divisions within the Catholic faithful are sharpening, and this race reflects that.

DEAL HUDSON: These two vice presidential candidates represent the old and the new in the Catholic Church in the United States.

HAGERTY: Joe Biden comes from a more traditional generation of Catholics, says Stephen Schneck, a political scientist at Catholic University.

STEPHEN SCHNECK: This is the Catholicism of our old ethnic neighborhoods, and our union halls, and a St. Christopher medal on the dashboard sort of thing.

HAGERTY: Places like Biden's boyhood town of Scranton, Pennsylvania.

VICE PRESIDENT JOE BIDEN: So this is where everything came together. This is where my family values and my faith melded. This is where...

HAGERTY: Those values, of the cop, the fireman, the union leader, placed Catholics solidly in the Democratic camp for decades. Schneck, who's co-chair of Catholics for Obama, says these Catholics tend to have a positive attitude toward government.

SCHNECK: Think about John Kennedy's famous "ask not" lines here. For that generation of Catholics, it's a recognition that government and civil society and so forth have a profoundly positive role to play.

ROBERT GEORGE: That generation now has moved on.

HAGERTY: Robert George is a Catholic and a professor at Princeton University.

GEORGE: And we have a younger generation of Catholics who are more conservative, especially on moral and cultural issues.

HAGERTY: George says these Catholics came of age during the papacy of John Paul II. They tend to be more committed to the conservative parts of Catholic doctrine and they see themselves in Paul Ryan, who opposes same-sex marriage and abortion, except when the mother's life is in danger. In fact, Ryan sponsored a "personhood" bill that would define a fertilized egg as a human being.

HUDSON: I can't think of a better pick.

HAGERTY: Deal Hudson says Ryan is already mobilizing the conservative Catholic base.

HUDSON: I think he strengthens the ticket from the point of view of the grassroots, pro-life Catholics, who frankly do a lot of the work in the campaign.

HAGERTY: Many of these Ryan-esque Catholics, political scientists say, are more affluent and they take a dimmer view of taxes and social welfare policies. For his part, Ryan said he found justification for his budget plan, which lowered taxes and cut services to the poor, in Catholic social teaching. Here he is on the Christian Broadcasting Network.

PAUL RYAN: And the preferential option for the poor, which is one of the primary tenets of Catholic social teaching, means don't keep people poor, don't make people dependent on government so that they stay stuck in their station in life. Help people get out of poverty on to a life of independence.

FATHER THOMAS REESE: That's not the Jesus I know.

HAGERTY: Father Thomas Reese is a Jesuit priest at Georgetown University. He says Ryan's plan flies in the face of Jesus' admonition to feed the hungry and clothe the naked.

REESE: A budget that cuts food stamps, that cuts Medicaid, can't be called a budget that follows Catholic social teaching of the Gospels.

HAGERTY: Some influential Catholic bishops agreed, and they publicly rebuked Ryan. Deal Hudson says that put a big target on Ryan's back.

HUDSON: The Catholic left was rubbing their hands with delight because they knew that they had an attack line - that is, the bishops' criticism of the Ryan budget, an attack line they could use over and over again between now and November 7.

HAGERTY: In fact, the Obama campaign has already made Ryan's budget a centerpiece of its advertising campaign. Here's a radio ad airing in Florida.


UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: And now Mitt Romney picks a vice presidential candidate like Paul Ryan, who tried to change the whole game when it comes to Medicare and Social Security.

HAGERTY: Political scientist John Green at the University of Akron says Catholics have never been so polarized, but there are millions of Catholics who don't really fit into either camp, the swing Catholics.

JOHN GREEN: And those moderate Catholics tend to respond to the economic agenda, the economic situation, much more so than more conservative Catholics or more liberal Catholics who tend to be strong partisans.

HAGERTY: So they'll be choosing between radically different views of governance, which both vice presidential candidates say are inspired by their faith. Barbara Bradley Hagerty, NPR News.

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